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Transcript of Papal Conclaves
13 -- U.S.A.
5 -- Brazil
5 -- Spain
4 -- Poland
4 -- Mexico 1) St. Peter: 30--66
2) Pius IX: 1846--1878
3) John Paul II: 1978--2005
4) Leo XIII: 1878--1903
5) Pius VI: 1775--1799
6) Adrian I: 772--795
7) Pius VII: 1800--1823
8) Alexander III: 1159--1181
9) St. Sylvester I: 315--335
10) St. Leo I: 440--461 The pope is the Bishop of Rome. St. Peter was the leader of the apostles. He moved to Rome in the 40s (within a decade of the Church beginning). St. Peter led the Church from Rome and he was the first bishop of Rome. Pope Benedict XVI is the 265th bishop of Rome. There has been an unbroken line of popes from Pentecost to this day. All the cardinals of the Church who are under 80 years of age are considered "cardinal electors" and can vote in the election for the next pope. For starters, to be elected pope, one must be a Catholic male. Technically, a lay Catholic could be elected pope and then receive the Sacrament of Holy Orders after his election and before his enthronement as pope. This is a rare situation, and it has only happened a few times in Church history. Each time the cardinals vote it is called a "ballot." They keep voting until someone gets over 2/3 of the votes. The pope can be any nationality or ethnicity, but since the pope is the Bishop of Rome, most popes have been from Rome or surrounding Italy. But there have been four popes from Africa, several from the Middle East, several from France and Germany, and one from England. Over the last 400 years, we have had the following papal names: The most popular papal name ever is John with 22 popes having that name. Gregory and Benedict are tied at second with 16 each. Pius: 7
John Paul: 2
Urban: 1 All ballots are burned after each vote. Black smoke=no pope yet. White smoke=pope. The pope, like any monarch, can select any name as his "regnal name" upon his enthronement. He can keep his birth name or choose any name he wishes. The practice of popes changing their names happened for the first time in the 6th century when a man named Mercury was elected to the papacy...thus causing a highly awkward situation. He opted for John instead: good call. Pope Marcellus II who reigned in 1555 was the last pope to keep his birth name as his regnal name. "Fun" Facts: did you know... Pope Leo XIII was the first pope to be filmed with a motion picture camera in 1896. He blessed the camera (one of the first invented), the inventor of the camera, and all future film endeavors. From 754--1870, the pope was both the Bishop of Rome and the secular ruler (essentially the king) of central Italy. The pope remains the head of The Vatican City to this day. John Paul I (in 1978) was the first pope to choose two names for his regnal name. From 1654 to 1903, the rulers of Spain, Austria, and France could "veto" a cardinal during a conclave preventing him from being elected. This happened twelve times. This was done for the final time in 1903 when Austria vetoed Cardinal Mariano Rampolla. Pius X forbade the practice after his election in 1903. Pope Gregory XIII ordered the creation of the Gregorian Calendar in 1582. This calendar, created by Jesuit scientists, is much more accurate than the Julian Calendar that had been used previously. The entire world uses the Gregorian Calendar today. In 1965, Pope Paul VI became the first pope to travel to The United States. Pope John Paul II came to America seven times (although two times were airplane layovers in Alaska) and Pope Benedict XVI once (in 2008). Although Cardinal Pacelli, who would become Pope Pius XII in 1939, traveled extensively in the United States in 1936. Recent length of papal conclaves:
1903: 7 days; 4 ballots
1914: 4 days; 10 ballots
1922: 5 days; 14 ballots
1939: 2 days; 3 ballots
1958: 4 days; 11 ballots
1963: 3 days; 6 ballots
1978 (Aug): 2 days; 4 ballots
1978 (Oct): 3 days; 8 ballots
2005: 2 days; 4 ballots The Pope in canon law is known as the Bishop of Rome, the Successor of St. Peter, the Head of the College of Bishops, the Vicar of Christ, and the Pastor of the Universal Church. However, the title most commonly used for the Petrine office throughout the Code of Canon Law is "The Roman Pontiff" (the term pontiff means "chief priest"). The Pope is also the servant to the servants of God and can be thought of as the Bishop to the Bishops of the Church. Since 1878, Papal Conclaves have been
held in the Sistine Chapel. The last layman to be
elected to the papacy was
Leo X in 1513. In the first millennium, the popes were
elected by a consensus of "the clergy and
the people of Rome." But by 1059, the practice
of the College of Cardinals (representing
the clergy of Rome) electing the pope became
the norm in the Church. The College of Cardinals is composed of Archbishops, Bishops, and Patriarchs of the Eastern Catholic Churches. Within the college, however, the cardinals are divided into "Cardinal Bishops," "Cardinal Priests," and "Cardinal Deacons," based on their seniority. In the last 100 years, three archbishops of Venice and two archbishops of Milan have been elected pope. Cardinal Scola is the current Archbishop of Milan and is a considered "papabile" in the 2013 conclave. A cardinal who is considered to have a very strong chance of being elected to the papacy is called "papabile" by the Italian media. Sometimes the papabile cardinals win (Benedict XVI, Pius XII, Paul VI) and sometimes cardinals win who were not on the radar screen (John Paul II, John XXIII) The armies of revolutionary France invaded Rome and took Pope Pius VI prisoner in 1799. When Pope Pius died in captivity in France, the conclave to elect the next pope had to meet in Venice (then part of the Austrian Empire) because the French would not allow the conclave to happen in Rome. So Pius VII was elected in 1800 in Venice. In the year 236, a candidate could not be agreed upon for the next pope, until a dove entered the room and rested on St. Fabian's head. It was the Holy Spirit and St. Fabian was elected pope at once. Pope Saint Fabian ruled from 236--250. Christ created the office of the papacy when he told St. Peter that He would found His church on him (Peter="The Rock"). The language used here is that of institution, the institution of the papal office. Before He ascended into Heaven, Christ charged St. Peter, three times, to feed His sheep. Conclave means "without key." The practice of the cardinals meeting in a conclave dates to the 11th century reforms of Pope Gregory X. To avoid lengthy elections, and to limit the political machinations of the Holy Roman Emperor, Pope Gregory wrote a canon law that required cardinals to remain in a secure room without any outside interference until they elected a new pope. When the cardinals cast their votes, they place their ballots in an urn near the altar of the chapel, underneath Michelangelo's painting "The Last Judgement."