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Building a Personal Computer

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David George

on 17 November 2014

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Transcript of Building a Personal Computer

What Is Hardware?
Construction of a Personalized Computer

Physical components of the PC you can view and touch

Crucial and necessary for the operation of the computer. All parts need to work together properly to function. Hardware includes but is not limited to: hard drives, CPUs, motherboards, RAM, graphics cards, keyboards, mice, and so on.
The 6 Internal Components
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
Memory (RAM)
Hard Drive
Video Card
Power Supply Unit
These 6 components are housed within the enclosure.
The Motherboard
Why Is the Motherboard Important?

Connects and interacts with the other parts of the computer.
Facilitates all the different parts of the computer.
It carries power from the power supply to all the other components.
History of the Motherboard
The motherboards in our past history were time consuming and confusing.
Before the invention of microprocessors, computers were built in mainframes and the components were connected into the backplane (consisting of SEVERAL slots). This was around 1975
wires had to be connected to connector pins
Before motherboards were invented, they were given the name "mainboards"
the first motherboard was featured in the IBM PC called the "planar"
different people kept on upgrading the motherboard - for example Stephen Wozniak who made the first motherboard for the Apple II
the first computer to use a motherboard was developped and released by the IBM company
Introduction to the Apple I which has a motherboard, keyboard and display
Before the generation of microprocessors, computers were built in mainframes while several wires were connected to the backplane which consists of countless slots
Peripherals functions (a device at the edge) were added for more space for peripherals like the mouse or keyboard
Late 1990s
Motherboards consisted of full range of audio, video, storage and networking functions
Motherboards today are easier to work with and smaller
History of the Motherboard
So Who Created the First Motherboard?
Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak were the first to create motherboards for the Apple Computer I and II.
The IBM released the first computer which used a motherboard.
Motherboards Today
Motherboards today include:
Sockets for microprocessors
Slots for main memory
Basic input/output system
Expansion card slots
Prices flexible with desired board
Cost of Motherboard
It depends....
Around $150-$300
Replacing motherboard is more expensive.
The Central Processing Unit (CPU)
Why is the CPU Important?
The CPU acts like the brain of the computer. Without it, the computer cannot run.
The Central Processing Unit
The Human Brain
The Brain of the Computer
Processes all data and provides outputs
Carries out the commands for the PC hardware to function

Intel with the help of Ted Hoff introduces the first microprocessor, the Intel 4004 on November 15, 1971.
Intel releases the Pentium Processor - $878
Intel Pentium II is introduced
On January 3 Intel releases the 1.3 GHz Pentium 4 processor
Intel releases the Core2 Duo Processor E6320
Intel releases the Core2 Duo Processor E7600
History of the CPU Processors
Early 1970s
Evolution of the CPU
CPUs in the past were harder
to understand because they were
more complicated.
Who First Invented The CPU?
Intel invented first CPU
The first commercial computer was built by designed by Freddie Williams and Tom Kilburn at the University of Manchester.
The CPU Today
Is smaller
Is cheaper
Has more transistors resulting in faster processing of data
Can be overheated
Transistor limitations
Memory - RAM and ROM
Why is Computer Memory Important?
They store data whether it is temporary (RAM) or permanent (ROM). For a brain comparison, RAM is short-term memory while ROM is long-term memory.
Enables a person to look back at the stored information
Helps the processor store its data, processes and calculations

History of RAM & ROM
Early types of computers stored data using vacuums or magnet-cores with coil wrapped around them
This was replaced by transistors
By 1970, Integrated Circuits (ICs) were used
1970, Intel released the first DRAM
Modern day RAM is compact and accessible at high speeds
In 1956, PROM was invented
1971, EPROM was invented
1980 - Flash memory
1983, EEPROM was invented
ROM & RAM Evolution
From complicated vacuum tubes to nowaday memory storage - a huge change!
Present Day RAM
RAM is used today for temporary storage.
Stores programs and data
Can be promptly used by the processor
Data can be retrieved at random order
Enables to load different programs
It is volatile (holds data for the time the power is present)
Changes constantly
When RAM is full, computer slows down
Present Day ROM
ROM (Read-Only Memory is used for permanent storage. The saved data will always be there.
Permanent storage, will not change
Can be upgraded
Info is saved, wether system is turned off or not
Carries out normal functions of computer
If damaged, computer cannot function
- ~$40 per 4 GB
- Depends on what type.
Hard Drive
Why is the Hard Drive Important?
Data from the RAM is kept on the hard drive
The hard drive is the storage area of PC. Without it, data cannot be stored or retrieved.
IBM 350 RAMAC is invented.
IBM 1301 Disk Storage released.
First disk drive to use removable media was the IBM 1311.
IBM introduces the first drive using a wound-coil ferrite recording head
The eight inch floppy disk drive was introduced by IBM.
IBM 3340 introduced.
Control Data Corporation introduced SMD disk drives.
Seagate introduces the ST506 hard disk drive, the first hard disk drive developed for microcomputers.
The first Gigabyte hard disk drive is introduced by IBM.
History of Hard Drive
Who Invented the First Hard Drive
The hard disk was invented on September 13, 1956 by IBM team led by Rey Johnson (considered as "father" of the disk drive).
Rey Johnson
The IBM Team
The Hard Disk Drive
Cost -
Has large storage capacity
Can store and retrieve data faster
Can be replaced or upgraded
It's cheaper
It's much smaller and compact
Hard disks eventually fail which seizes the computer from working. Hard disks use moving parts, which are doomed to fail eventually.

Expansion Slots
Why are Expansion Slots Important?

Expansion slots are high-performance links between the CPU and the expansion cards
Is important part because it allows the user to upgrade the performance of the computer
Late 1970s
late 1980s
Apple II and Macintosh had proprietary bus expansion slot standard.
CP/M machine based on Intel 8080 CPU and the bus standard was called S100.
IBM introduced IBM PC and bus expansion slots standardized around the ISA bus.
Intel introduced the 80386/80486 chipset and its PC/104.
Intel introduced the Pentium chipsets.
History of the Expansion Slots
Present Day Expansion Slots

Power Supply Unit
General Information
Converts the incoming AC current from the wall outlet to the 5V and 12V DC power that the PC can utilize.
It's especially important because without it, the computer has no power and cannot function.
Present Day Power Supply Unit
New developments are based on ATX design.
Better power efficiency
High power ratings.
Refresh Your Memory - What are the 6 Internal Components of the Computer?

"I think it's fair to say that personal computers have become the most empowering tool we've ever created. They're tools of communication, they're tools of creativity, and they can be shaped by their user." Bill Gates
Presented By:
David George,
Janson Kolanda,
Jesus Valenzuela
Are smaller and more efficient with space management.
Commonly used to accompany graphics cards and many other peripherals including network cards.
Most expansion slots these days are PCI or PCIe slots.
The Graphics Card
Allows for rendering of images and outputs to a monitor
Dedicated components to reduce load on CPU and RAM, and processes video images faster
If the CPU is the "brain" of the computer, then the GPU is the imagination!
How To Build A PC
In order to effectively build a PC, one needs to gather the aforementioned components. When gathering the components, one also needs to be mindful that they will all work together.

More important than anything else, one needs to keep in mind the kind of motherboard they plan to use as well as the power supply. Not all CPUs have the same socket type, and if the socket doesn't match with the MOBO's socket, they will not be compatible. And if the power supply doesn't provide enough power, nothing will turn on.
Additional GPU Details
The price range of GPUs varies greatly.
Since there are many options for low and high power PC builds, the options are endless. Some people may be content with a $50 GPU for basic needs, while others may want a $500 GPU for high-powered gaming needs. And then there are all the options in-between.
Solid State Drives
Much faster read and write speeds than hard disks.
Smaller, more compact, more energy efficient.
No moving parts, operate using flash memory, which is also used by SD cards and USB sticks.
The only current disadvantages to SSDs are their high costs and relatively small space; HDDs can go higher than 3 TB, while there are very few SSDs any higher than 1 TB. However, these are improving drastically as time goes on.
Step One: Placement
When building your PC, placement is everything. Never assemble the PC on a rug or any other surface which could generate static electricity, and always wear an anti-static wrist strap. Static electricity, even though it's minor to us, can be very harmful to computer components, even damaging them to the point that they cease to function.

As such, a table, desk, plastic sheet, and so on are good places to assemble your PC. The first thing you'll want to do after getting all of your PC components organized and in view is to open up your computer case. Typically, there are 2-3 screws on the back edges of the case that, when screwed off, allow for side/s of the PC case to be removed.
Step Two: Assembly
One incredibly important decision to make from here on out is whether you want to assemble everything onto the motherboard BEFORE you place it in the case or after. Generally, it is much easier to place all of the appropriate components onto the motherboard BEFORE placing it inside the case because it keeps you from having to work inside a cramped space.

Before anything else, though, you'll want to place the other important components that actually attach to the inside of the case, such as the power supply and the hard drives/solid state drives. These are very easy to place inside the case, as they only require screws to stay attached. The power supply must be put inside the case before motherboard, otherwise the motherboard will block the opening for the power supply.
CPU slot
RAM slots
Motherboard Slots
GPU slots (PCI & PCIe)
The Entire Motherboard Explained!
PSU connector
In Conclusion...
There are numerous and varied benefits to building your own PC. One can save at least $200-$300 just by building it yourself and cutting out the middle-man. Also, a PC is easily upgradeable. You don't have to buy a new PC if something goes wrong or it becomes outdated. You simply upgrade a part (or parts) and everything runs smooth again without having to buy another PC for $500+.

It's also a learning experience! And for anyone going into any kind of major or job that has anything to do with computers, it's especially important to know how a computer works and what its components are!

If any of you have questions, please feel free to ask!
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