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Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage

Bjørns_CCS_Gøril
by

Gøril Tjetland

on 6 June 2011

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Transcript of Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage

Immobilising CO2 in a gaseous or supercritical phase. CO2 is trapped in structural traps or in pores in the rock CO2 is dissolved and immobilised in fluids in the formation (water or hydrocarbon) The dissolved CO2 reacts chemically with the minerals in the formation or adsorb on their surface Storage sites Enhanced oil/gas recovery
Deep saline aquifers
Depleted oil/gas fields
Enhanced coal-bed methane recovery Storage Transportation Monitoring www.bellona.org/CCS Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage The ETS regulative was augmented so that CO2 captured and stored is considered not emitted. This gives an incentive to invest in CCS.

In the long run (2025-2030), it is expected that the price of emission credits and cost of CCS will meet. When this happens, CCS is concidered commercially mature. Regulations on storage Financial support to encourage early movers Sorting out who will be responsible for what
Long-term liability is a core issue
Adapting existing policy to accommodate capture, transport and storage of CO2

Status: Regulations passed December 2008
Under implementation in MS Emission Performance Standard Substantial industrial experience exist for all individual parts of the CCS value chain, but large-scale experience is very limited.
Demonstration at near-commercial scale needed to discover cost and gain financial and technical confidence.
Learning effect of demonstration program is higher when the demonstration programme is carried out at the European level.

Status:
NER300: Revenues from auctioning of 300 million emission credits from new entrants reserve earmarked to finance 10-12 demonstration plants
1.05 billion EUR from EU recovery package
Structural funds
New: 20% of Norway's contribution through EEC earmarked for CCS projects Emission credits for CCS Policy is crucial to make it happen! EPS means setting a maximum amount of CO2 allowed from power generation or industrial processes
In effect, this rules out unabated (large-scale) use of fossil fuel
US: California and Washington state already have EPS, promising results
A clear, unambiguous, technology-neutral signal to industry and investors Status:
The proposal passed the environmental committee of the European Parliament in Oct 08, but only NL and DK supported it in the European Council
Process to introduce it into the IPPC regulative (regulating large emitters)
Major companies have come out and supported EPS in EU Director of Bellona Environmental CCS Team
The Bellona Foundation Derek Taylor Process design Parameters Mass flow
Temperature
Pressure
Chemical composition
Capture rate
Purity requirement Capturing CO2 from flue gas after combustion at atmospheric pressure
Wide range of applications in operation
Industrial manufacturing
Refinery and fuel transformation
Gas processing

Well-suited for retrofitting
Does not interfer with existing process

Lower separation efficiency Post-combustion capture Pre-combustion capture Oxyfuel combustion Removing CO2 from shifted syngas before combustion
In commercial use in the chemical industry (ex: hydrogen and ammonia production from hydrocarbon feedstocks)
Typical energy process design: Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle power plants

High separation efficiency
Lower operating costs

Reliability concerns due to integrated process
Not well-suited for retrofitting Combusting hydrocarbons in pure oxygen
Oxygen produced in an air separation unit (ASU)
Result: 70-85% CO2 in flue gas, avoiding the need for CO2 separation

Suited for retrofitting
Also dramatically reduces SOx and NOx emissions

Less large-scale experience than alternatives Gas power plants Coal power plants Cement kilns Iron/steel factories Pulp and paper Refineries Chemicals Industrial processes CO2 capture from facilities producing cement, chemicals, aluminium, steel, paper, petrochemicals, wood products and numerous other products
Post-combustion is the most viable option, but oxyfuel may also be viable for some processes such as cement production Mongstad, Norway CO capture projects Click to start/stop animation Click to start/stop animation Click to start/stop animation source: Potsdam Institute for Climate research Why and how much CCS is needed? Nordjyllandsverket CCS and biomass co-firing project Proper site appreciation and selection is crucial! Seismic surveying in Denmark CCS is not a goal in itself, it is a bridge to a truly sustainable energy chain.
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