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Technology in Education

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on 3 December 2014

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Transcript of Technology in Education

Technology in Education
Interactive White Boards

Rationale
Technology In Education


Gives a sense of formality with teacher standing at the front of the class using a blackboard to provide the children with information on what they need to learn that day


Chalkboards
For some it may help them focus more as there are less distractions than there would be if they were using an interactive method


Can have some element of interaction if the teacher has the pupils up using the board as well


The lack of engaging activities you can do with a chalkboard makes it dull and boring for children



They don't stimulate learning

meaning it can be hard to engage children and keep them focused

Stimulates learning


Allows children to interact and
engage with their lessons
 Provides a method of communication between children

Colorful and eye catching which helps keep the children focused
 Versatile

Children can add their own input to lessons so allows for creativity
Supports different learning styles as teachers
can use the software to adapt their lessons


We chose the topic of technology in education as our educational issue as it is a prominent feature in today’s classrooms. We thought it was best to familiarize ourselves with this topic as it will play a significant part in our teaching careers. We also chose the topic of technology as throughout our degree we will have to apply technology to our own studies.


Our group has chosen Prezi to represent our artifact as we feel this mode is easy to interact with, encourages more engagement and assists with learning. We feel Prezi links in very well with our chosen topic of technology in education.



Originally we had chosen to use Microsoft PowerPoint to represent our artifact, as we felt it fitted in well with our chosen educational issue as for the majority of our group it was our first experience of technology in school. Three of our group members also did Administration at either Standard Grade level or at Higher level, therefore we felt most comfortable with using Microsoft PowerPoint.


However after further investigation and deliberation we concluded that Prezi would better represent our ideas as we felt we had to move with the times and advances in technology therefore we chose to use this method as it is the most current advance in technology. Prezi is also easy for our group to come together and complete our assessment as we feel it is the most beneficial method of group work.
However...
Unlike a chalkboard, smart boards may not always be reliable



Although they stimulate learning it also depends on the learning environment and the teacher in order for the children to stay engaged with the learning


Many teachers are not used to this style of teaching/learning so may be a bit hesitant to use this method

This technology is only stimulating for children in terms of their learning when used in the correct manner. Due to inexperience this technology is often either underused within the classroom, or overused when teachers become too dependent on the children learning from this technology.

In terms of chalkboards and smart boards, smart boards are definitely vital in the modern day classroom. They are stimulating through allowing the interaction between the children and their learning. However this technology has to be used correctly in order for it to be an affective part of learning within the classroom.


one of the main concerns of the over use of this technology is that
it could potentially affect the children's ability to read if they are constantly being presented with images to related to information instead of text.

However, most of the concerns related with interactive white boards can in fact be easily prevented through using this technology effectively and properly.
Many different types of technology are applied
within the modern day classroom environment
including...
Laptops / Computers
laptop population in schools = 94,700
868,000
(Syscap. 2012:7)
2001 is when laptops began to be introduced
into schools as a learning tool.
Nowadays Laptops are used in schools for
many different reasons, including...
Audio and Visual learning
Group Work

researching and presenting information
Gathering information from internet

Using social networking sites

Tweet!
And Playing Educational Games.

iPad
96% of UK schools have
access to laptop/desktop
computers.
(Touchdown, PR.)
However, in 2011 iPads were beginning to be introduced into the classroom, by 2013 49% of UK schools had access to to them.
(Touchdown, PR.)
IPad's have become such a popular teaching tool due to the fact that they fit in well with both the classroom environment and the methods of teaching.
IPad's are often compared to Behaviorist B.F Skinner's idea of a teaching Machine.
(Skinner, F,B. 1960)
This is due to the fact that the children can work independently
At their own pace...
and get instant feed back.
This can help to motivate the learner.
A significant 69% of students certainly consider themselves to be more motivated
now that they have the iPads. (Heinrich, P. 2011. 29)

IPad's are a modern day technology that provides the user with complete interaction at the touch of a finger.
this level of interaction is what motivates the child to want to learn.
Many applications have now been designed for educational purposes.
This means that iPads are constantly being developed and updated in order to provide new ways of learning, keeping the user interested.
Smart boards
The benefits and disadvantages of smart boards have already been discussed, but exactly how are smart boards used within the modern day classroom?

Smart boards were beginning to be introduced into classrooms in 2003.

Some of these apps include...
a calendar which can be used to store important dates, such as exams
You Tube app which can be used to watch educational clips
Reminder app which can be used as a homework diary
Notes app that can be used to take down important key points
and the Itunes app which can be used to download educational podcasts.
(The history of smart board technology)
In 2010, 73% of classrooms in the UK had SMART Boards...
and 8% of classrooms worldwide.
(Globe Newswire)
Smart Boards are mainly used for...
Whole class interaction and group work
to play educational games

to watch educational clips
and to act as a prop for the teacher to help keep the children interested when conducting a lesson.

to play interactive games
Disadvantages

Technology In Education
Advantages
• ‘Technology use is not about the hardware, internet connections and so on. What is important is how the technology is integrated with the instructional program’ (Bennett and Everhart, 2003).
• Furthermore many institutions are failing to effectively integrate technology into the curriculum’ (Bquer and Kenton, 2005).
• Many teachers feared the introduction of technology – the majority being older teachers (Scottish Executive Education Department, 2005).
• Many were reluctant to use this new approach of technology in the classroom because they had serious question like where was the funding for all this new technology coming from? This led to fear of budgets being cut to support new technology, many felt other areas of the curriculum would suffer if budgets were cut (Scottish Executive Education Department, 2005).
• Some did not feel confident or had never used computers, interactive white boards and iPads before, many questioned this introduction of new technology as they feared it would take too much time to train and become confident when using this equipment (Scottish Executive Education Department, 2005).
Many of the older generations were reluctant to this change and took on the notion: ‘why fix something if it was not broken?’ They did not see the need for change and supported traditional teaching methods and wanted to keep them.
• Some pupils may not be adequate in using this new technology, a small percentage of pupils who do not have access to computers or other forms of technology would have to learn how to use these, many argued that this would cause pupils distress and would interrupt their learning. This could also lead to loss in confidence, the child may start to feel like they are falling behind because they do not have the adequate skills to use the new technology being introduced in the classroom (Scottish Executive Education Department, 2005).
• Many teachers felt the biggest obstacle in the introduction of technology in the classroom was time. Many felt they would not have enough time to learn new skills to enable them to use the equipment, find out about the resources and the many different pieces of equipment they could use in the classroom (Scottish Executive Education Department, 2005).
• Many teachers felt they wanted to plan and try out the new approaches to teaching and learning brought about by the technology, however felt they did not have the time to do this effectively (Scottish Executive Education Department, 2005).
• Teachers felt they needed time to reflect upon and consolidate their experiences and share them with others. Many felt they simply did not have the time to do this effectively (Scottish Executive Education Department, 2005).
• The Scottish Executive Education department stated: ’competing priorities and for some, lack of access to relevant technologies outwith schools continue to impede on progress (Scottish Executive Education Department, 2005).
• ‘almost half in each sector (primary and secondary) believing that the classrooms of the future would be significantly different from those of today, as a result of the impact of ICT’ (Scottish Executive Education Department, 2005).
Reference: September 2005, Scottish Executive Education Department – The impact of Information and Communication Technology in Scottish Schools: Phase 3. PP 1-8.
• Students may become overwhelmed with the amount of information they need to know in such a short space of time in order to use the new equipment introduced in classrooms. This can lead to the student feeling bombarded with too much information when compared with the information a student needs to know for a traditional lesson. This can lead to the student not having enough time to fully digest all this new information needed to use the technology.
The following extract is an interview with a student who is discussing the disadvantages of an inter active whiteboard in the classroom and voices his concern about how some students may feel overwhelmed by the intensive use of technology in the classrooms if they are not used to this method of teaching:


Interviewer
student 1
‘what about the disadvantages of using this technology, not only the voting system, but the whiteboard, everything you saw during the sessions?
Student 1
Social Media
Could teaching professionals adapt social media to suit a primary education environment?
Using Twitter and social media platforms can
aid learning development - in both a social and
academic sense - as it facilitates active
learning amongst students (Junco, Heiberger
and Loken, 2011).
Studies show that the students that used
Twitter to share ideas and continue class
discussions were more engaged and had
greater academic success in the particular
module they wereparticipating in (Junco,
Heiberger and Loken, 2011).
This incites the notion that social media could be used in a different setting to improve the learning environment for primary-age pupils.
As social media is currently a popular means of communication, and students are interested in its use, pupils become more inquisitive about the learning they are undertaking. This results in increased motivation and encourages students to engage with each other and the material they are studying (Junco, Heiberger
and Loken, 2011).
Dunn (2013) states that as many as 92% of students are currently using social media, cementing its ubiquitous nature. As it is a prolific means of communication, adapting its principal purpose for children may be beneficial.
Primary pupils are more likely to engage in learning if the platform with which they are interacting is interesting and captivating; further stimulation and learning may be a favorable result.
Further exploring the apparent interest in social media and its effects amongst the younger generation, Turel and Serenko (2012, p.512) divulge that 'perceived enjoyment can indeed be a positive factor that drives high engagement' and people, as well as students, are 'absorbed in' and 'more enthusiastic.' This again supports the notion that social media, if implemented in to Primary Education, may induce and maintain interest in learning.
However, the limitations of the use of social media as well as the concerns that correlate with its use must be considered.
'We define technology addiction as a user’s maladaptive psychological state of dependency on the IT use which is manifested through an obsessive pattern of IT-seeking and IT-use behaviours that take place at the expense of other important activities and infringe normal functioning' (Turel and Serenko, 2012, p.514).
Concern that pupils may rely on technology and, indeed, social media, which will affect how they use other methods of effective learning.

Due to the reason presented above, it is a concern that pupils may rely on the use of technology and social media, therefore impeding how they engage with other methods of effective learning and the acquisition of other important skills.
In order to counteract the potential misuse of social media and the addictive tendencies that may incur with its use, pupils should be instructed, in an exciting and appealing manner, how to use the system appropriately.
Another issue with the implementation of social media in to a primary education is that virtual communication will take the place of interpersonal communication. This relates to the concern that face to face socialisation will decrease, which in turn will sacrifice the skills required to be a successful interpersonal communicator (Benniger 1987, cited in Barnes 2006).
However if children are encouraged to use social media, or a child-friendly derivative of it, in tandem with interpersonal communication with adults and their peers; instead of a replacement means of communication, then social media should support the learning that is currently taking place.
In addition, another detrimental consequence of the introduction of social media in to primary education would be the risk of invasion of privacy and exposing the vulnerability of the children.
Cyber-bullying and abuse over the internet through the medium of social media is a reality and must be taken in to consideration when discussing this proposal (Benniger 1987, cited in Barnes 2006).
The proposed solution would be to ensure that all safety measures are considered and undertaken. This may consist of:
educating children, teachers and parents on internet safety,
a secure and safe network for the use of children and relevant adults,
the method of logging in and entering passwords in are as protected as possible.
Social media may be the future of education, but there are variables that must be considered before a definitive decision can be made.
Although social media increased academic productiveness and encouraged enjoyment when learning, there are certain risks that come to light when transferring social media in to an educational setting which centres around children.
The proposal, however, still stands; a social media platform, like Twitter, is adapted and produced to suit the learning requirements of primary school children. It is clear that certain policies would need to be put in to place to ensure privacy and a safe learning environment.
This has the potential to be a part of the future of technology within education and, after discussion with other student teachers, there is evidence of Twitter already being used in primary schools.
View on technology in education from a teacher who works with children with additional support needs.

Recording conducted on 15/11/14.
‘Ah, ok, you don’t know what is happening?
‘Disadvantages….. I think it’s, for me, it’s difficult to handle the whiteboard, I have to know before attending your sessions, I have to know the minimum required, I mean of informatics, I have to understand that, because it’s really fast.’.
'Yeah, yeah. I mean, I can understand it, but if I am another student and I don’t have any background in informatics, it’s very difficult…….it’s just like………ah, what’s happening…….it’s just too fast for us…..’
The student interviewed also pointed out that everything went too fast in the lesson when a teacher used an interactive whiteboard, they suggested it became far too difficult for students to follow the lesson and understand the content.
• A study of technology used in the classroom, which was reported in the British Journal of Educational technology stated, ‘pupils perceived that the interactive whiteboard had a negative impact on their teacher, who tended to move on too quickly’ (Wall et al, 2005: 851-867).
• However while this study was being carried out the teacher using all this technology in her classroom also realised the disadvantages of this technology: ‘I think that because the technology allowed me to prepare so many things and to have easy access to everything, I ended up doing too much and I probably didn’t give the students enough time to think and digest all that information, ask questions……….interact with the content of the lesson’ (Wall et al, 2005: 851-867).
The use of such technologies like the interactive whiteboard have led to students feeling like they have been ‘spoonfed’, having such free access to resources has encouraged students to become lazy as the teacher is ‘spoon feeding’ them the information (Schmid, 2008: 1553-1568).
• This point is demonstrated in the following extract from Schmid’s article, Potential pedagogical benefits and drawbacks of multimedia use in English language classroom equipped with interactive whiteboard technology, where two students are discussing the disadvantage of an interactive whiteboard.
Student 1
student 2
'I agree with Cole’s opinion that
the whiteboard makes us lazy’
ah...laziness
• ‘the whiteboard supplies lots of information, so…. It deprives our imagination…… yeah……..it just attracts our interest but deprives our imagination. It’s a big defect of it’.
: ‘A big disadvantage, because you become lazy in terms of……imagination……..what……. could you explain this better? I can’t understand it very well’.
: ‘because in the blackboard you just write and explain, so in our heads we have to think the (……)…… but using the whiteboard it supplies all the information…….. if you can use it…… so we don’t need to think so much’ (Schmid, 2008: 1553-1568).
During this discussion, the students discussed how technology supplies a huge amount of the information needed, which make students less inclined to use their imagination or make an effort to understand the content or ideas of the lessons. This would result in the student becoming lazy (Schmid, 2008: 1553-1568).
Allows for stimulating classwork for pupils by being able to combine various things together which will stop them being bored/not interested in their work.
“Computer provides support for various technologies like text and audio-visual elements” (Gülbahar, Y. 2007).
Interactive - the quieter pupils will feel that they are part of the class and that they are not being ignored by the teacher as they are actually getting up and doing something (pressing buttons on iPad, smart boards etc.)
Allows for students to work at their own pace/level which will motivate them as they now see education as a personalised thing rather than a whole class thing.
“iPads have brought students closer. They have given them more influence in designing the curriculum and in working with it their learning practice has changed. It remains to see what will happen over the extended period of use.” (Culén, A., Gasparini, A. 2011.).
Allows for the pupils to communicate with others across the classroom and to give answers to the teacher at front of classroom without moving from their seat.
“Learning takes place through board interaction and associated group and class discussion.” (Glover, D., Miller, D. 2001: 11)
Clickers allow for the pupils to feel less bored because they don’t feel like they are learning when in reality they are - could be of benefit to children who don’t like school/behavioral problems?? Technology also allows for instant feedback to children which in turn boosts their motivation and allows them to see where they are going wrong.
“Clickers integrate a "game approach" that may engage students more than traditional class discussion.” “Provide prompt feedback to student” (Martyn, M. 2007)
Using technology is preparing children so that when they leave education they will be able to meet the demand of the 21st century.
Pupils View on Technology Within the Classroom
Press play for video to begin!
Please wait for audio to begin
Recently Graduated Teachers View on Technology Within the Classroom.
How many years have you
been teaching?
1 year
Have there been any significant developments in technology in your teaching career?
I have not witnessed any significant developments due to the short time I have been teaching. However as part of my personal development I have undertook training on creating and using a class blog and Twitter to support learning in class and at home, as well as to share learning with parents/carers.
What impact has curriculum for
excellence had on technology?
I have only ever used Curriculum for Excellence so have not witnessed changes. However, I would say that CFE does give teachers more flexibility in their teaching approaches, which provides opportunities to use technology to support learning across the curriculum.

How have lessons changed?
As mentioned above, I have not witnessed significant changes within my short time of teaching.

How dependent are you on it?
I am mainly dependent on technology to encourage parent involvement by sharing learning experiences, resources and information with parents/carers via the class blog and Twitter. I also use the class blog to support learning in class on a daily basis. I use the SMART board on a daily basis to support and enhance learning experiences and to manage behaviour/daily routines (e.g. tidy up music and timers). I use a camera to record videos and take photographs as evidence of learning.

Do you have a back up plan for lessons if technology was to fail?
Initially I would plan a back-up lesson, however with experience I have learned to be more flexible and think on my feet or reschedule a lesson to another time.

Where do you see technology
going in the future?
I can see that technology may be used more in future, perhaps more individual computers, laptops or tablets being used to support learning in classes. I also think teachers will be trained to keep up to date with technological developments in order to help children develop skills for life and work.
"we can expect a student at a 50th percentile in a classroom without technology to increase to the 66th percentile in a classroom using whiteboards" (www.sheltonschools.org).
using too many visuals, digital pictures etc. make it hard to identify important content.
(www.sheltonschools.org)
Possibility that the teacher may run through information quickly if it is already set out and only a button needs to be pressed to access the new information. (www.sheltonschools.org)
Conclusion
Overall, as a group, we have concluded that technology in education is having an impact on the education of children. Although technology is already prolific and evident, there is still a future for technology within education. Technology not only has an effect on the students, but also the educational professionals. We thought it best that we investigate this particular topic so as to prepare ourselves for our future as contemporary teachers.
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