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Transcript of APUSH Timeline
He demands $250,000 and a $10m loan before he’d meet with them.
Considered a diplomatic insult.
Lead to the cry: “millions for the defense, but not one cent for tribute” 1787 United States Constitution Ratified by most states in 1787.
It is the longest surviving written constitution because of its ability to change based on the needs of the people.
Includes a preamble, articles, and a Bill of Rights. 1794 An insurrection in 1794 in Western Pennsylvania over a refusal to pay whiskey tax.
13,000-15,000 troops were called up - more than Washington had at any time during the American Revolution
demonstrated the power of the national government. created by Eli Whitney
Led to more land cultivation.
increased the need for slaves.
increased cotton production that could be grown over more southern areas. 1793 Invention of the Cotton Gin 1797-1798 Naturalization act: increased the years for citizenship from 5 to 14 years.
Sedition Act: made it illegal to criticize people in high government.
Alien Enemies Act: gave president the authority to deport those aliens that he believed to be a threat. 1798 Alien and Sedition Acts drafted by Madison and Jefferson.
Says each state has the ultimate authority to determine the constitutionality of federal laws
thus, states retain ultimate sovereighty and can nullify federal law within their borders.
This is the first step of states versus federal government towards civil war. 1798-1799 Virginia and Kentucky Resolves midnight appointments
Adams appoints Federalists to the Judicial Courts. (John Marshall is made Chief Justice. )
This is done to keep Federalists in control and obstruct Republican legislation 1801 Judiciary Act of 1801 John Adams appointed William Marbury as a justice of the peace during his midnight appointments.
Thomas Jefferson refused to honor the commissions.
Marbury has a right to the commission.
The Supreme Court has the authority determine the constitutionality of congressional acts.
The landmark US Supreme court case that established the exercise of Judicial review. 1803 Marbury v Madison William Marbury Although Thomas Jefferson is concerned with the constitutionality of buying this land, this land is purchased from France for $12m plus an assumption of $3m in France’s debt for damages to US ships.
This effectively doubles the size of the United States.
This land purchase removes France's presence in the region and protects U.S. trading in the New Orleans port and free passage on the Mississippi River. 1803 Louisiana Purchase An undeclared naval war was going on mainly between England, France, and the United States over the rights of neutrals.
The Embargo Act was a general embargo passed by congress as an attempt to get Britain and France to stop fighting.
The Non-Intercourse Act lifted the Embargo on all American shipping exept those to Britain or France. Which, still did not work.
Thus came the Macon’s Bill #2. This bill opened trade with the entire world, declaring that when either Britain or France halted the violations of neutrals, US will halt trade with the other unless they stop within 6 months. 1807 Quasi War troubles Treaty of Ghent 1814 Officially ended the War of 1812
Returned US-Britain relations to the same status as they had been before the war.
The US neither gained nor lost any territory. Impressment went unaddressed. Missouri was ready for statehood.
It entered as a slave state and Maine entered as a free state.
Slavery is banned in Louisiana Purchase territory north of the 36-30 line except for Missouri. 1820 Missouri Compromise 1783 3200 BC Crossing the Land Bridge Native’s from Siberia came across a land bridge, or the Bering strait, that connected to the American continent up near the Alaska. Eventually, the bridge was submerged under the ocean as Ice caps melted. This bridge brought the first people to the American Continent. http://ows.edb.utexas.edu/site/hight-kreitman/land-bridge-theory 1492 Christopher Columbus Discovers America http://www.nndb.com/people/033/000045895/ Christopher Columbus discovered America on accident while looking for the West Indies to trade. He was lucky to find America or he would have run out of food and supplies . He names the “friendly, naked, and timid” natives the “Indians”. Also, he set up La Navidad a trading post, and his discoveries eventually started the Columbian Exchange between the old and new world and Africa. This trade mostly traded gold, produce, and syphilis from the new world to the old world; wheat, sugar, coffee, cattle, and many more diseases from the old world to the new world; and slaves from Africa to the new world. Spanish Conquistadors came to the Americas in search of wealth both monetarily and physically but most failed in their quest. Some became known for their achievements like Francisco Pizarro who conquered the great Inca empire. Also, Vasco Balboa who “discovered” the pacific ocean, and Ferdinand Magellan who was the first to circumnavigate the globe. Others, however, like Ponce de Leon who searched for the fountain of youth did not achieve their mission. This failure of these great conquistadors opened up the North American continent for English 1513-1535 Spanish Conquistadors settle the Americas http://www.lifeinthefastlane.ca/new-fountain-of-youth-pill-works/weird-science Jamestown was a colony settled in Virginia by a Joint-stock company out of England, and was the first successful American colony. They did not however have an easy settlement. They went through the “starving time” in the first winter when almost everyone died. Thanks to John Smith’s “No work, No eat” policy some did survive and were rescued by Baron De La Warr. The colony was turned around by John Rolfe with his discovery of the cash crop tobacco. They did bring the idea of the headright system that gave 50 acres of land for every head that was brought to the new world. 1607 Jamestown Settlement http://www.falmanac.com/2012_12_01_archive.html The Mayflower compact was the first governing document of the Plymouth colony and the first self government document in America. It was written by the separatists who were fleeing to America from religious persecution in England and wanted to eliminate the state church all together. http://www.ncmayflower.org/mayflowercompact.htm November 11, 1620 Mayflower Compact This began after the Puritan colony of Massachusetts bay was a success. Many of those who were being persecuted in England during the protestant reformation began coming to the new world for “religious freedom”. Many of those were hard working because of the protestant work ethic (saying that hard work brought favor from God). http://apushcanvas.pbworks.com/w/page/58840093/The%20Puritans 1630 -1643 Great Puritan Migration This was the intensely emotional transformation that swept America in the mid-1700s. It was started by Theodore Frelinghuysen and spread through, Jonathan Edwards (northeast) and George Whitefield (South) . This was a battle of the old lights and the new lights or the emotional and the rational. It made the religion much more personal and less ritualistic. It lead to new denominations and interest in religion, along with religious tolerance to a certain degree. 1730-1750 1st Great Awakening http://apushcanvas.pbworks.com/w/page/53613860/The%20First%20Great%20Awakening War was part of the 7 years war in England, and was fought between British colonies and the French colonies. They were competing for land and trading rights in the colonies. The war ended with the Treaty of Paris 1763, but native rebellions like Pontiac’s came about. The war acted more as a “solvent” or cleanser in the colonies that a “cement”. It did not solve the problem of control in the colonies permanently but it did remove the French influence. In the colonists eyes however it brought a downfall because now that the fighting had ended so did their free rein under salutary neglect. 1754-1763 1754-1763 French and Indian War http://issworldhistory.forumotion.net/t1950-the-treaty-of-paris-1763 Stated that no colonist could settle in Indian lands. The British justified it by saying that it was to protect the indians, but the true purpose was to control the colonists in one area and control the fur trade. It was the first example of British controlling after salutary neglect ended. Proclamation of 1763 1763 http://www.landofthebrave.info/proclamation-of-1763.htm connected New York City with the Great Lakes.
Links the East with the West, further isolating the South.
Made New York City the Primary port and lessens the importance of the Mississippi River. 1825 Erie Canal a 45% tariff on raw materials was passed.
Jackson’s supporters never thought it’d pass.
South Carolinian, John C. Calhoun, protests in the SC Exposition to protect from the “tyranny of majority.”
-Supported interposition, nullification, and secession. 1828 This was the first true tangible act that the british had enacted. It brought about the argument of taxation without representation, and the discussion of virtual v. direct representation. In response the the stamp act the colonist created the stamp act congress which fought the act and was the first unified political movement. Also, in response unified resistance was see like those of the Sons of Liberty. The stamp act was repealed but the British immediately added the Declaratory Act of 1766 which stated that parliament had total control over the colonies. 1765 Stamp Act http://keep3.sjfc.edu/students/jls09924/e-port/vsg/VSG.html The Townsend acts that were previously ruling over the colonies were all repealed except the tea act to show that Britain still held supremacy. This tea act greatly upset the colonists and one night a crowd dressed up like indians and dumped tea into the Boston Harbor. This directly lead to the intolerable/ coercive acts. They closed Boston Harbor, and took fair trails out of the colonies. This was ultimately the last straw before the revolution; it showed that words were no longer good enough and action was going to be taken. 1773 Boston Tea Party http://www.cr-cath.pvt.k12.ia.us/lasalle/Resources/8th%20Websites%202012/Makeala%20Amy%20Kim%20Rev%20War/Rev%20War%20Amy%20Olberding/Boston_Tea_Party.html Thomas Gage (the head of the British forces in America who was sent to oversee the enforcement of the Intolerable acts) was ordered to go to Concord and get stores and capture John Hancock and Samuel Adams (patriotic loud voices). Paul Revere then warned the minutemen. When Gage arrived in Lexington he said “disperse ye rebels” which upset the tension and someone fired. This was the “shot heard round the world” because it was the little colonies standing up the the big Great Britain. This started the Revolutionary war. 1775 Lexington & Concord http://publicdomainclip-art.blogspot.com/2010_04_01_archive.html This was a last stitch effort to mend the feud between Britain and the colonies. He stated that the colonies were fighting against Britain but really had hopes of peace. This was published just days after the “Declaration of Causes of taking up arms” which stated that either the colonists could suffer in tyranny or fight. These two documents kind of contradicted each other, but either way King George refused the Olive Branch Petition in August of 1775 the colonies declare a state of rebellion. July 8, 1775 Olive Branch Petition http://auntheather.com/2011/olive-branch-speaks-peace/ The declaration was not officially signed until August 2nd. It declared that the colonies consider themselves independent from Great Britain. It was written by Thomas Jefferson who was chosen by a committee. July 4, 1776 Declaration of Independence http://www.founding.com/the_declaration_of_i/ 1861-1865 This battle was the turning point of the revolutionary war. The British were attempting to carry out a 3 pronged attack to divide the South. The British officials were Howe, St.Leger, and Burgoyne. Burgoyne headed south with 8,000 men but was slowed down by the women and children who were also traveling. This slow pace allowed the colonists to drop trees and burn bridges, forcing British to forage for food costing them men. Burgoyne was now outnumbered and was forced to surrender after the Battle of Freeman’s farm. This battle encouraged the French to join the fight against the British because it gave hope to the colonist victory October 1777 Battle of Saratoga http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battles_of_Saratoga This was the treaty signed to end the Revolutionary war after Colonel Cornwallis surrender at Yorktown. He had trekked to Yorktown to resupply after Guilford Courthouse but became trapped by the French on water and the Colonist on land. The treaty stated that the Colonies were independent, the Loyalist would leave the forts in the Northwest, and the colonist would have the land west of the Mississippi. .http://www.fhs.d211.org/departments/socialstudies/mbrotsos/ap/10handouts/unit3/aoc/case4.htm 1783 Treaty of Paris The primary goal of the ordinance was to create the Northwest territory, the first organized territory west of the Mississippi. It established the precedent that the United States would expand westward with new states, not extend the existing states only. Also, slavery was banned under the ordinance; this established the Ohio river as the divider line between free and slave states. This set the stage for the battle over the slave/free states west of that line, and one of the main arguments of the civil war. http://www.thefederalistpapers.org/the-northwest-ordinance Northwest Ordinance 1787 Tariff of Abominations Jackson believes the most humane way of dealing with the Indian problems as forced removal.
The forced removal of the Cherokee tribes is known as the Trail of Tears. Many died during the travel by starvation and disease. 1830 Indian Removal Act 1830 Peggy O'Neale and John Eaton get married soon after the death of her first husband.
This was seen as a scandalous action so soon after his death.
The wife of Vice President Calhoun led an "anti-Peggy" group.
Jackson, having had similar issues with his wife Rachel (1828), sympathized with Eaton.
The Peggy O’Neale/ Senator Eaton affair caused Jackson to shun Calhoun, leaving Van Buren to become his successor. 1830-1831 Peggy Eaton Affair (Petticoat Affair) 7th President of the United States Andrew Jackson
1829-1837. Introduced by Henry Clay and John Calhoun in response to the Nullification Crisis
reduced tariff to 35%.
Nullification is attempted as SC nullifies is but receives no support
Jackson threatens to kill if there is any bloodshed over the issue 1833 Compromise Tariff The Alamo 1836 John O’Sullivan coins the phrase "Manifest Destiny" in 1839
used to describe the nebulous feeling that the United States had the God-given right to “overspread” the continent.
God would seek the most Christian, educated, moralistic, politically democratic nation to control as much territory as possible. 1839 Manifest Destiny Pinckney was sent to Spain to secure the rights of deposit.
Spain was convinced that secret provisions in the Jay treaty for a joint U.S. - British takeover of Louisiana.
treaty secured the rights of navigation and deposit on the Mississippi (particularly important to the old northwest) 1795 Pinckney's Treaty An important battle in the fight for Texas' Independence from Mexico.
About 200 Texan volunteers, including William B. Travis, James Bowie, Davy Crockett, unsuccessfully defended the Alamo against the thousands of Mexican troops, led by Santa Anna.
A few weeks later, Sam Houston defeated Santa Anna, gaining Texas' independence. 1st President of the United States George Washington
1789 - 1797 Independent Party
Vice President: John Adams 2nd President of the United States John Adams
1797 - 1801 Federalist
Vice President: Thomas Jefferson 3rd President of the United States Thomas Jefferson
1801 - 1809 Democratic - Republican
Vice Presidents: Aaron Burr & George Clinton 4th President of the United States James Madison
1809 - 1817 Democratic - Republican
Vice Presidents: George Clinton & Elbridge Gerry 5th President of the United States James Monroe
1817 - 1825 Democratic - Republican
Vice President: Daniel Tompkins 6th President of the United States John Quincy Adams
1825 - 1829 Democratic - Republican
Vice President: John C. Calhoun Democrat
Vice Presidents: John C. Calhoun
& Martin Van Buren 9th President of the United States William Henry Harrison
Vice President: John Tyler
Died his first year in office 10th President of the United States John Tyler
1841 - 1845 Whig
No Vice President 14th President of the United States Franklin Pierce
1853 - 1857 13th President of the United States Millard Fillmore
1850 - 1853 15th President of the United States James Buchanan
1857 - 1861 11th President of the United States James K. Polk
1845 - 1849 Democrat
Vice President: George M. Dallas 12th President of the United States Zachary Taylor
1849 - 1850 Whig
Vice President: Millard Fillmore
Died in office Whig
No Vice President Democrat
Vice President: William King Democrat
Vice President: John C. Breckinridge 16th President of the United States Abraham Lincoln
1861 - 1865 Republican
Vice President: Hannibal Hamlin
& Andrew Johnson http://0.tqn.com/d/inventors/1/0/o/W/cotton_gin.gif Whiskey Rebellion http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/96/WhiskeyRebellion.jpg http://www.wwnorton.com/college/history/archive/resources/maps/ch08_02.gif http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ef/Property_protected_%C3%A0_la_fran%C3%A7oise.jpg http://b1969d.medialib.glogster.com/media/8f36eeb83766a5f6047b82cfdb0e2b0c377d000ec198aab5deecb96deec3e660/sedition.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/1/18/United_States_Louisiana_Purchase_states.png http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/73/Signing_of_Treaty_of_Ghent_%281812%29.jpg http://www.mhschool.com/ss/ca/images/img_g5u7_quiz_missou_comp.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/8e/Lockport_bartlett_color_crop.jpg/288px-Lockport_bartlett_color_crop.jpg http://faculty.polytechnic.org/gfeldmeth/jcc.jpg John C. Calhoun http://api.ning.com/files/SbGzzouHVuGOsw2oB0A5S7ltvlgS*7*tCRxfwmjOM-gVt7Q5Lnb*svmuN0NbLRuGMD03BsMNMYmGBlTJ5ojG27GKwKrUXmkt/trailoftears.jpg http://cdn.dipity.com/uploads/events/4a87acf8bef2149a9aea14f40b4ecf36_1M.png http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/92/Henry_Clay.JPG Henry Clay - The Great Compromiser One of the most famous slave rebellions
consisted of more than 40 slaves
They traveled house to house killing every white person they met
When word got out about the rebellion, local militia met Turner's force and they scattered
55 people were captured and executed, many were banished, and some were acquitted.
200 black people were killed by white mobs, some not even having a connection to the rebellion.
While the state considered abolishing slavery, it was decided that they would retain slavery to continue their repressive black policies. 1831 Nat Turner Rebellion http://www.nndb.com/people/937/000110607/nat-turner-1-sized.jpg Martin Van Buren
1837 - 1841 Democratic - Republican
Vice President: Richard M. Johnson 8th President of the United States started civil war 1861 Battle at Fort Sumter Emancipation Proclamation 1861 Robert E. Lee led the Confederate Army to Appomattox Station for supplies.
They were cut off by the Union Army, under General Ulysses S. Grant.
Surrounded by Union troops, Lee surrendered to Grant on April 9th
This was the final battle of the Civil War. 1865 Battle of Appomattox Court House http://christopherfountain.files.wordpress.com/2010/04/saluteofhonor.jpg John Wilkes Booth 1865 April 14th, 1865
Booth was an actor and Confederate sympathizer
Booth became angry when Lincoln stated he supported enfranchising former slaves
Along with Lewis Powell, George Atzerodt and David Herold, Booth plotted the assassination of President Lincoln, Vice President Johnson, and Secretary of State Seward.
Booth shot Lincoln in the head at Ford's Theater
Lincoln died from the gunshot wound the next morning http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ea/The_Assassination_of_President_Lincoln_-_Currier_and_Ives_2.png South Carolina Secedes! 1860 american art movement that was centered around nature
most of the artworks were landscape paintings.
Artist Thomas Cole is accredited to founding the Hudson River School 1830 - 1840s The Hudson River School http://screensaver.qweas.com/arts/screen/art_of_the_hudson_river_school.jpg The second great awakening was a protestant revival movement that started in the early 19th century but came to a peak in the 1840’s.
It stimulated many reform movements. 1840s Second Great Awakening http://www.buzzle.com/img/articleImages/542275-21017-5.jpg The first women’s rights convention in the western world, led by Elizabeth Cady Stanton. It lasted two days, from July 19-20, and the women had many conversations ranging from law to the role of women in society. 1848 Seneca Falls Convention Treaty that ended the Mexican War.
Terms: -Assumption of Mexican war debt,
-Mexico recognizes Texas as a US territory
-Mexico gives US New Mexico and California.
Increased American Territory by 1/3 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Under the compromise, California would be admitted as a free state; government in New Mexico would be organized without talk of slavery; new, tougher fugitive slave laws would be passed 1850 Compromise of 1850 Kansas-Nebraska Act 1854 Bleeding Kansas 1854 - 1858 1857 The Dred Scott Case Freeport Doctrine 1857 3/1/1781 - 3/4/1789 The Articles of Confederation The first attempt at a constitution for the United States.
Created when Americans had a deep fear of a strong central authority.
The Articles gave most of the power to the states and legislature.
There was no executive branch and the Judicial branch was very limited. http://skepticism-images.s3-website-us-east-1.amazonaws.com/images/jreviews/Elizabeth-Cady-Stanton-1900.jpg https://eee.uci.edu/clients/tcthorne/anthro/1848.gif http://mrkash.com/activities/images/CompromiseOf1850.jpg http://www.angelfire.com/ga4/epearljam45/optomized_images/ush10.JPG http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/38/John_Brown_Painting.jpg http://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/ourdocs/Images/dredscott.jpg http://images.virtualology.com/images/1393.gif http://www.ulsternation.org.uk/images/rebflag.gif http://www.charlestonbatterytour.com/attack-fort-sumter.jpg https://www.usps.com/stamp-collecting/ assets/images/470340-01-main-695x900.jpg -"Spark to start the war”
-Stated that the newly acquired Nebraska territory would be split into two territories & popular sovereignty would be used to determine the issue of slavery.
-This nullified the Missouri Compromise & the Compromise of 1850.
- Ultimately caused a huge mess because Stephen Douglas- who introduced the bill- failed to realize just how emotional and moral the subject of slavery had become. This act resulted in a divided nation and pointed it toward civil war
- It also Gave rise to the Republican Party. Missouri had taken it upon itself to encourage pro-slavery settlers which in turn angered the southerners. This caused a multitude of fighting, which started with the Sacking of Lawrence, and is lumped together and called “Bleeding Kansas.” -Dred Scott, a slave, sued his owner for freedom. The case went all the way up to the supreme court ten years later.
-Chief Justice Roger Taney decided that “all people of African ancestry-slaves as well as those who were free-could never become citizens of the United States and therefore could not sue in federal court.” It was also ruled that the federal government did not have the power to prohibit slavery in its territories.
-This case further emotionalized the northerners view of slavery. -Stephen Douglas’ idea during the 2nd Lincoln-Douglas Debates. “slavery cannot exist a day or an hour anywhere, unless it is supported by local police regulations.” - in other words, if people didn’t want slavery, don’t put slaves codes into law. 12/20/60 & is the first to secede from the Union. The significance of Fort Sumter is that it is where the Civil War essentially started. When the Union tried to resupply the fort and the South fired on the fort, the war was inevitable freed slaves in those states that continued the war after January 1st, 1863. As the union took those states, they would free the slaves. The Emancipation Proclamation represented a step toward the complete abolition of slavery in the US.