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Function 2: Biomechanics Terms

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Tom Young

on 10 January 2014

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Transcript of Function 2: Biomechanics Terms

Function 2: Biomechanics Terms


Joint capsule & cavity

Synovial Membrane containing synovial fluid

Articular surfaces lined with Hyaline cartilage

Synovial (Diarthrodial) Joint

The force per unit area of a structure
measures the intensity of the force

The change in length, angle, or shape when subjected to loading

Change in length or shape
Synonym = Strain

Stress and Strain

Ability to permanently deform when loaded beyond its elastic limit

Example (Panjabi and White)
The permanent deformation of a ligament (sprain) after it has been
subjected to greater than 40% of its ultimate load


Ability to return to the original shape when the load is removed

Body tissues exhibit elastic properties unless loaded to a point of plastic deformation



Two adjacent vertebrae

Intervertebral disc

Soft tissues that join them

*It is this motion segment that allows us to adjust patients!

Motion Segment

Resistance to deformation when loaded

Stiffness of a material may be different than a structure made with the same material
Healing tendons and ligaments tend to be weaker than their healthy counterparts,
despite increased thickness
Alignment of fibers also modifies stiffness


Levangie, P. Joint Structure & Function: A Comprehensive Analysis. 4th Ed.

Loading along the long axis of a motion segment

Axial Loading

Deformation over time when constantly loaded
Gradual return to original length when load is removed

Tendons & Ligaments will lengthen under a constant load (stretching),
and return to original length when the load is removed unless the point of plastic deformation is achieved.

Creep & Recovery

Phenomenon associated with energy loss exhibited by viscoelastic materials
when they are subjected to loading and unloading cycles.

The energy lost is usually in the form of heat



Force that is parallel to contacting surfaces, and has an action line in direction of attempted movement.

Levangie, PK. Joint Structure & Function : A comprehensive Analysis . 4th Ed.


Davis, FA. Taber’s Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. 20th Ed.

Radicular*: pain in a predictable pattern associated with nerve root insult

Although often used interchangeably, they represent distinctly different involved tissues

Local: pain @ site of tissue injury

Referred: pain away from site of tissue injury

Radiating*: pain in predictable pattern associated with nerve injury. Also described as “shooting pain”


Pain in predictable pattern related to embryologic origin.
Often more severe than radicular pain
Typically not as peripheral.
Shooting pain with no signs of weakness, or MRI/reflex findings

Organ dysfunction results in pain in a predictable pattern.

Pain in predictable pattern related to TrP or facial adhesions

A Strain is an injury to a MUSCLE OR TENDON resulting in failure of the tissue.

A sprain is an injury to a LIGAMENT resulting in failure of the tissue


-itis: inflammation/inflammatory
myelo-: refers to the spinal cord (neurologic tissues)
Spondylo-: refers to the spinal column (vertebrae)
Ankylos-: refers to fusion
-lysis: refers to fracture/failure/breaking/dividing
-lysthesis: refers to translation

Latin Invasion
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