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VIM: Blood borne Pathogen

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by

Greg Carter

on 3 February 2016

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Transcript of VIM: Blood borne Pathogen

Occupational Safety and Health act of 1970
OSHA
VIM: Blood borne Pathogen
Bloodborne pathogen is defined as a pathogenic microorganism that is carried, replicated, and/or transmitted in blood or blood products and is capable of causing disease.

What is the OSHA Bloodborne Standard?
Bloodborne Pathogens can (and do) spread on the job:
By cutting or puncturing yourself with a sharp object that is contaminated by the virus
Needle sticks are the most common source of exposure (and easiest pathway)
When a contaminated object touches inflamed skin or skin abrasions (dry skin, frequent hand washing...)
When you touch a contaminated surface and then touch your eyes, mouth, open wounds or inflamed skin

How Do They Spread?
Key Provision of the Bloodborne pathogen standard
written plan
describes how the employee will ensure use of PPE
written plan available to employees
reviewed annually

OSHA: Exposure Control Plan
After an exposure..
Patient asked to have blood test
Exposed employees are offered post-exposure evaluation and follow-up at no charge to the employee
Blood can be preserved for 90 days, during which time testing can be done
Medical follow-up can be declined upon signing a declination form

OSHA: Workplace Control
Bloodborne Pathogen Exposure
When cleaning up biohazardous materials wear protective gloves and use an appropriate cleaning solution. Use disposable towels and dispose in a biohazard labeled bag

HouseKeeping
All VIM employees who have routine exposure to blood or other body fluids are offered the vaccination series against hepatitis B at no cost to the employee

Hep B. Vaccine
Focuses on the safety and health of the
EMPLOYEE in the workplace

Does NOT cover patients, students, volunteers, visitors, or the general public
Health & Safety Policy
VIM is committed to providing a healthy and
safe working environment for our employees. We should all be concerned about accident prevention and maintaining a clean and safe workplace.

If you see anything you believe to be a potentially unsafe working condition or practice, please report it to your supervisor immediately.

This includes HIV, hepatitis B virus
and hepatitis C virus

Think of a head of a straight pin..
now think of an HIV virus particle
500,000 particles of HIV can fit on the head of a pin
Times TWO!!
HIV – (Human Immunodeficiency Virus)
Attacks the body’s ability to protect itself
Can be present without symptoms; No cure
Passed through the blood or sexually

Hepatitis B virus (HBV)
Potentially the most dangerous infection
Up to 100 times more infectious than HIV
In some settings Hep. B virus can survive on a surface for at least
one month
at room temp
Can be carried without symptoms and passed on
Can cause liver damage & possibly liver cancer

Signs & Symptoms of Hep. B
Fatigue/weakness
Nausea/vomiting
Abdominal pain/tenderness
Mild fever
Headache
Jaundice
Muscle & Joint ache
There is no treatment for acute hep. B, but there are vaccines that prevent it!!!!
Hepatitis C virus (HCV)
Most common chronic bloodborne infection Estimated 3.9 million Americans are infected
Many have no symptoms ; unaware they are infected
Can cause cirrhosis & liver cancer

Hep. C Symptoms:
Fatigue & Weakness
Abdominal pain
Jaundice
There is no vaccine to prevent hep. C.
There is now a pill with a high CURE rate
incidence of hep C. have increased by at least 25% in Bloomington
Universal Precautions
Reduces risks associated with exposure to bloodborne pathogens
Treats ALL blood and body fluid as if they are infected
MUST be followed in all situations where there is a potential for contact with blood and/or infectious material
Universal Precautions Applies To:
Blood
Body fluids containing blood
Saliva
semen
vaginal secretions
unidentifiable body fluid
OSHA: Work Practice Controls
These controls help reduce the likelihood of exposure.
Hand Washing
Hands need to be thoroughly washed with water (10-15 seconds) and an antimicrobial solution:
Before / after gloving
After each patient procedure
Before leaving the work area
Before eating
After hands have touched a possibly contaminated surface

Handwashing Continued:
Since pens, charts, keyboards are not routinely cleaned, regular hand washing is recommended to minimize the transfer of bacteria and viruses
Protects against resistant bacteria that may be part of the respiratory or gastrointestinal tract flora and can be present without symptoms.

OSHA: Work Practice Controls
Hand-to-Hand Transfer
Hand to hand transfer of contaminated sharps is FORBIDDEN
Sharps should be placed on a flat surfce, and a "pick up" used to retrieve them
Safe Sharps Initiative
Integral to exposure control plan
Use engineered sharps injury protection when feasible. What is that?
Needles: Do NOT bend or break!!!
Recapping: scoop method? use a one handed technique
Does VIM have a plan?
YES!
Disposable Sharps
discard in puncture proof containers
Change containers when they are 3/4 full
keep containers UPRIGHT and lid sealed
Sharps container is to be placed in the designated medical waste container in the external closet
All containers are to be labeled with bio-hazard label
What is considered a contaminated sharp?
Needles
scalpels
broken glass
Teeth?
remember blood can be aspirated into the syringe!!
Reusable Sharps
Place in puncture-resistant, leakproof containers and label with biohazard symbol or color-coded red immediately after use
If scrubbing, wear appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE)
Procedures for sterilizing reusable equipment should be followed
Equipment must be thoroughly cleaned before sterilization

Rooms should be cleaned between patients
The use of table paper decreases the transmission of microbes
Examining devices such as stethoscopes , blood pressure cuffs, pulse oximetry… should be wiped off regularly.
Personal
Protective Equipment
special clothing/equipment to help protect against bloodborn pathogens and hazards
May include
Gloves
eye protection
gown
face shields
Torn or punctured gloves should be replaced! duh.
Change PPE after each patient!!!!
The nurse with Ebola may have been exposed while taking PPE off.. think about it.
If you come into contact with blood or other bodily fluids that may be contaminated with bloodborne pathogens:

immediately wash the exposed area with warm water and soap
Flush splashes to nose, mouth, or skin with water
Irrigate eyes with water or saline
Treatment, if necessary, should begin as soon as possible after exposure

Report the incident to a supervisor
(Exposure Reporting is Mandatory!)

Never clean up broken glass with your hands. Use a dustpan and brush, cardboard or tongs.
Do not use a vacuum cleaner
Broken glass should be placed in a sharps container. Never put in a plastic bag

Wear gloves when handling dirty laundry. Put laundry in a double plastic bag that prevents leakage. Label the plastic bag clearly.

Given in a 3-dose series over a 6 month period

Employees who have routine exposure risks have the right to decline the vaccine, but will be required to sign a declination form.
Approximately 90% of those vaccinated will develop protection against hepatitis B virus

A safe working environment is a partnership between the employer and employee

Failure to comply with safety policies may be reflected on evaluations, factor into pay changes and can result in termination

QUESTIONS???
Reminder: All employees must complete and return the OSHA Bloodborne Pathogens Proficiency Questionnaire.
Please hand in completed questionnaires.
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