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Age of Exploration, Colonization & Revolution
Transcript of Age of Exploration, Colonization & Revolution
a. Describe the reasons for, obstacles to, and accomplishments of the Spanish, French, and English explorations of John Cabot, Vasco Núñez de Balboa, Juan Ponce de León, Christopher Columbus, Henry Hudson, and Jacques Cartier.
b. Describe examples of cooperation and conflict between Europeans and Native Americans. The Explorers The Reasons The Obstacles The Rewards & Results John Cabot Good to Know: He was an Italian explorer that used an English version of his name. Cabot was sponsored by England in 1496 to sail West looking for better and safer routes to the Indies and Asia, just like Columbus before him. He was the 2nd European sailor to reach America. He thought going at higher latitudes would mean a shorter trip (clever), so Cabot decided to try going Northwest to find a waterway passage to Asia. Instead he landed somewhere between Newfoundland in Canada and Maine in the U.S., though he didn't know it. He told the King in Britain that he had found and claimed land for England. Cabot got to make return voyages but he and a crew of 300 were never see again on the last trip.
What to Remember: Sailed for England and looked for a Northwest passage to Asia but found Canada instead, the first since the Vikings. Vasco Nunez de Balboa Good to Know: Balboa was a Spanish explorer and conquistador but didn't start out that way. Inspired by stories from the travels of Columbus, Balboa sailed to the New World Spanish colony in South America and settled in present day Colombia in 1501. Balboa witnessed many efforts of the King of Spain to conquer lands in the New World, including wars with Natives. Balboa spent some time on a military ship and grew into favor with the man in charge, Francisco Pizzaro. Pizzaro helped Balboa become mayor and then governor of newly founded towns. Keeping up with expectations, Balboa continued to fight natives and explore the territory. One group of natives accepted Balboa peacefully and told him of "another sea". Very interested by the stories and hopes of more lands with gold, Balboa led an expedition to find the so called south sea. He discovered an isthmus and found that the sea was actually a way to the Pacific Ocean. He was praised for his important discovery, at first.
Good to Remember: In 1513 he crossed the Isthmus of Panama and became the first explorer to cross the Americas and reach the Pacific by going west. (A goal all other explorers were trying to achieve by water, though he did it by land.) Juan Ponce de Leon Good to Know: Ponce de Leon joined Columbus on his 2nd voyage to the "New World". They arrived in the Caribbean and soon settled Puerto Rico. Ponce de Leon was named the governor of the new province. Spanish members of government heard rumors of more islands filled with gold, so Ponce de Leon was contracted (sent by request and with promise of a payment) to explore the area to find them. He sailed north and found the Bahamas, then he went a little further north to find Florida in 1513. Ponce de Leon was the first explorer to led an expedition to Florida; a popular legend says he was looking for a fountain of youth for the King of Spain. In 1521 Ponce de Leon led another voyage to explore and colonize Florida because many others had gone without contract to claim the land. Although soon after landing, they were attacked by Natives and had to flee because Ponce de Leon was hit by a poisoned arrow.
Good to Remember: He found and claimed Florida for Spain in 1513. Explorer Assignment: Put them in order! Make a timeline of explorers and their 1st voyages. Christopher Columbus Good to Know: Christopher Columbus was an Italian navigator. Columbus had great ambitions to find a way to the East by going West. He asked a few countries before he was finally sponsored by the Queen of Spain to explore the western Atlantic for a passage to the Orient. The Orient referred to the countries in the far east, Asia and the Islands of Indonesia (the Indies). Several other explorers were traveling around the southern tip of Africa to make their way to the East but Columbus estimated that he could go west and reach it more quickly. In 1492 Columbus set sail headed west looking for the Indies and other Asian spice islands with his 3 famous Spanish ships; the Nina, the Pinta and the Santa Maria. Columbus seriously underestimated the circumference of the earth and it took longer than expected before land was sighted. Columbus thought they had done it and found the Indies but he had found Cuba instead. The native people he met, he called Indians. Once Columbus realized he had made a mistake he was very excited. He sent word to Spain of his discovery of a "new" land before he returned. He made many trips to the Caribbean, visting nearly all of the southern islands and claiming them for Spain. Columbus opened the door to European exploration of the Americas, and eventually the conqueroring of the new world by Spain, England and France. He also began conflicts with the natives peoples and set the path for the Columbian Exchange.
Good to Remember: In 1492 Columbus sailed the ocean blue, the Atlantic, with 3 ships called the Nina, Pinta and Santa Maria to be the first to find newly discover the Americas. Henry Hudson Good to Know: Hudson was an English navigator and explorer. Like Cabot before him, England wanted him to find a Northwest passage to Asia. He began working for the Dutch East India Company in the 1609 whose business was trading to make lots of money. Hudson decided to explore the land around present day New York for a usable waterway that might lead west. He found a river (which was named after him) and explored it further inland where it lead to large bay, now known as the Chesapeake. This gave the Dutch claim to begin colonizing the area. News of his success found its way to England who was competing with the Dutch to find trade opportunities. In 1611 Hudson made his final voyage for an English trading company, and headed further northwest because of encouraging rumors he had heard from settlers like John Smith. He traveled past Iceland and Greenland over Canada looking for the Northwest passage. Hudson did find an inlet and a bay, now named for him, that he thought could lead to Asia. After the ship got trapped in the ice, Hudson's crew turned against him in mutiny and left him stranded in a small boat in his bay before it could be totally explored. Many explorers after him used Hudson Strait and Hudson Bay to look for the Northwest passage.
Years later, Hudson river became the main transportation waterway between the Atlantic and Great Lakes.
Good to Remember: Hudson searched for a Northwest passage to Asia but found the Hudson river in New York as well as Hudson Strait and Hudson Bay in Canada. Jacques Cartier Good to Know: Jacques Cartier was a very good French explorer. In 1534 Cartier set sail in the Atlantic hoping to find a western passage to those rich markets of Asia. He found Newfoundland in the Northern Atlantic, being the first to exlpore and map the Gulf of St. Lawrence. On his second voyage, Cartier went further into the Gulf to find the St. Lawrence river. He was able to meet with many native groups including the Iroquios. He renamed the 2 largest native settlements Quebec and Montreal. Cartier established the fur trade with the Native Americans that became a very wealthy and popular business for France. He also set up the first known colony in the newly named Canada region, though it was not permanent and only lasted a few years. Cartier returned to France to live, and was one of the first to acknowledge or confirm that the lands of Newfoundland were actually a separate land mass from that of Asia.
Good to Remember: Cartier claimed Canada for France and his discovery of the St. Lawrence River opened up new opportunities for Europeans to travel deeper into North American lands. Fearless men that went where no one they knew had ever gone before.
Where were they going and why?! Map Reading Activity Examine these 2 maps of Cartier's 1st voyage into St. Lawrence Gulf and answer the questions below.
1. What does map 1 have that map 2 does not? (Be more specific than color or place names.)
2. What does map 2 have that map 1 does not?
3. What are both maps missing that should always be included for map readers?
4. Why do you think Cartier chose to explore the Strait of Belle Isle? What other route could he have taken to find the Gulf of St.Lawrence? Map 1 Map 2 Map Skills Practice Look at this map of Columbus' voyages. Use it to answer the questions. 1. Which voyage do you think took the most sailing time and why?
2. Do you think Columbus experienced hurricanes? Why or why not?
3. If you were to choose an route for the Columbian Exchange, which would you pick and why? The road to the East was long and hard, giving all the more reason to find a faster, better way to travel in order to trade. Merchants and Specialization Merchants were business men that traded goods in cities across Europe and Asia. Countries had to work with their natural resources and many specialized in certain products. Merchants would take the special products of one region, carry them across the land and trade them for other special products that other countries made. They then return to do it all over again. It took months or even years but it was a good way to make money. Special items had high price tags, like sugar and jewels. New inventions and new food products were very appealing to people all over Europe. Trading brought on the sharing of ideas and knowledge which allowed civilizations to grow and develop across the world. An obstacle is something in your path that you have to overcome. (Think of an obstacle course that we play as a game where you have to jump, run or crawl around things to win.) Explorers faced many difficult and often deadly obstacles; everything from ocean storms and getting lost to hostile natives and running out of food. Ships often bred disease from lack of nutrition and poor sanitation. Let's review it with digital media! Columbus Cartier Cabot Exploration brought many changes to the lives of Europeans and the Native Americans. Some were good, some were not. New people came to live in the Americas.
Take a look at the map below. What were they trading? Geography threw in some obstacles to the exploration and settlement of the Americas, too. Can you think of some geographic obstacles? Source: Discovery Education teacher resource database Hudson Balboa Ponce de Leon The Colonies Circumnavigation Magellan brings it all together! The World &
The Beginning of Modern Exploration New Inventions & Exotic Goods What did the Europeans really want? Where were their inventions leading them? What were the 3 main things that made further exploration possible? What were the reasons they could go farther now? Exploration & the Renaissance Vocabulary caravan caravel Isthmus navigation Memory Trick 3CHBP Do you know what it means? Silk Road Notes of Interest: Countries in Europe were eager to find a way to trade with the East without going over land and having to deal with the "middle man".
The country that found the water route first would have the most opportunity to make money. The goods the east offered were very inspiring to royalty and common people alike. voyage Columbian Exchange trade What were some of the big benefits of settling in the Americas?
How did the Natives of North America cooperate with the explorers and settlers?
Compare and contrast the North and South American Native's interactions with Europeans. Things to Think About merchant obstacle The Columbian Exchange The Middle Man The new ship routes to the Americas brought on a surge of "sharing" between the old and new worlds. Europeans wanted the new items from Americas very badly and many traveled to get them, bringing both good and bad things along with them. Everything from plants and animals to diseases and slaves were exchanged across the Atlantic. Assignment: Examine the images below and list your observations. They sure were busy explorers, claiming lands in the Americas. Check out this map! Trade Routes Which continent group exchanged more items? Which continent group do you think was better suited for the animals, and why? Do you think the new exchanges were better than the original goal of trading with the east? Why or why not? In the Social Studies Book:
Homework: Practice Book with SS book
pages 15-21 chpt.3
pages 22-27 chpt.4 In the SS Book: More Vocabulary Circumnavigate route Add these words to your word wall. You can find their definitions in your notes and in the book, and hopefully in your head. colonize epidemic Class Work sheet
Pages 35 & 36 of US History Maps
Practice Book with SS book sheets Study Tips
Condense your notes; focus on what your really need to remember. *Key words & terms
Review the vocabulary and practice using it in sentences, summaries or prep questions.
Use memory tricks like making up abreviations or re-reading and writing things several times.
Use the vocabulary to make a Word Wall or Concept Wall with pictures that describe the words.
Use many resources (the Prezi, the SS book, class notes, class worksheets, homework sheets) and put things into your own words that you can recall easier. Review it your way!
Don't wait until the day or night before the test to study!! What color line shows Magellan's voyage?
Did Magellan make it all the way back to his starting point?
How long did the circumnavigation take? fort expedition settlement Chapter 3 Lessons 1 through 3
pages 84-101 Chapter 3 lesson 5
Chapter 4 all lessons
pages 120-145 1492 1497 1513 1534 1609 Columbus Cabot Balboa Cartier Hudson & Ponce de Leon charter armada tolerance diversity Class work sheet Class work sheets British Controled Areas of Colonization 13 Original Colonies Exploration Timeline Oct. 12th 1492
Columbus finds the Bahamas 1497
Cabot sees North America 1498
Columbus finds South America 1513
Balboa finds a way to the Pacific
& Ponce de Leon finds Florida 1521
Magellan completes circumnavigation 1534
Cartier explores upper North America
on the St. Lawrence river 1541
De Soto explores lower North America
on the Mississippi river 1565
First settlement, St. Augustine is
founded in Florida 1576
The Northwest passage is found 1579
California is explored 1584
Raleigh sends first expedition
for colonization to America 1607
Founding of Jamestown, Virginia 1608
Founding of Quebec, Canada 1609
Hudson explores New York's
Hudson river 1620
Pilgrims come on the Mayflower 1623
The Dutch settle New Amersterdam
(soon renamed New York by the English) 1630
Great emigration to America
& founding of Boston, Mass. Strategy: Read the directions & use them to scan for key words to quickly find the answer. 1585
Roanoke History of Colonization of America Assignment:
Use the timeline to calculate how many years it took from exploration to colonization. Directions
1. Watch the video, observing the movement and growth of the colors on the map from East to West.
2. Watch the video, observing the brown and pink parts of the map.
list the following in your notes:
Brown = territories, areas claimed by
a country but not yet settled
Light Pink = fully colonized areas after
the Revolutionary War that became states
under the United States government
Gray = areas controled by countries of than the
Dark Pink = areas in conflict between
the U.S. and another country or group of
Green = areas of conflict within the U.S.
government (civil war)
3. Watch the video s few more times, focusing on just one color on the map.
What observations do you make? Things to Think About: In the 16th and 17th centuries, and many, many before, people wanted to expand their control and power. Property is very valuable and ownership shows respectable qualities, including intelligence, strength, and pride. Some people were able to amass large amounts of wealth generating resources. A few began building armies and taking wealth from others.
Royalty began with honorable reasons that covered up more greedy and selfish ones. In Midieval times, people only agreed to being ruled by one king or queen because the rich have resources that can offer protection and assistance meeting the needs of survival, such as money to pay for soliders and land to farm and build on. In exchange for those resources, people obey certain rules. Rulers worked in groups as their responsibilities grew in size. Groups became governments. Monarchy governments are controled by specific bloodlines of wealth and power referred to as royalty. A king or queen makes all the decisions for the people. The Powers that Be:
England & Spain Exchange between America and Europe In 1588 the Spanish Armada attacked England in hopes to control it. England's great navy defeated the Spanish. Where before the 2 countries were nearly equal in power, this battle made England the new world power. Territories are areas of land unclaimed by any powerful government. England, Spain and France all claimed territories in North America. Settlers and soliders built forts that became small towns called colonies.
Proprietors are owners. The King may give or sell a piece of territory to a man or group, allowing them to be proprietors of a colony. Proprietors may also sell land.
People came from many countries in Europe to settle in the colonies of North America. New England Colonies Middle Colonies Southern Colonies The American Revolution When a government becomes disconnected from its people it loses understanding of the needs of those people and is not able to uphold its responsibilities of fairness of rule. America is Named Amergio Vespucci was an Italian cartographer, or map maker, as well as explorer and navigator. In 1507 another cartographer decided to name the new world after the man he admired after reading about his detailed voyages and examining his map work. One the book cover for his new world map he wrote, "I do not see what right any one would have to object to calling this part, after Americus who discovered it and who is a man of intelligence, Amerige, that is, the Land of Americus, or America: since both Europa and Asia got their names from women".
In 1508, after only two voyages to the Americas, the position of Chief of Navigation of Spain was created for Vespucci, with the responsibility of planning navigation for voyages to the Indies.
Ben Franklin Colonization's effect on the land and the native people. Social Studies Book
pages 130-139 & 144-149
Chpt. 5 & Chpt. 6
Practice Book homework
pages 23 through 26
pages 30 through 32
pages 33, 35 through 37
Social Studies book
chpt. 7 lessons 1-4
chpt. 8 lessons 1-4
Class work pages
US History Maps pages 40-42 Assignment: read the mini-book about Ben Franklin. Write a short biography of his life and importance to the U.S. Chapter 5 lessons 1 & 3
pages 160-163 & 174-177 Chapter 5 lessons 2&3 pages 166-179 chapter 6 lessons 1 & 2 pages 188-199 chapter 6 lessons 3 & 4 pages 202-205 & 210-215 Unfair Treatment The Declaration of Independence War: The fight for liberty Changing Kings & the Monarchy The British tried to divide and conquer the colonies but the plan did not work against the united beliefs of the colonists. Colonists started town militia, average people prepared to fight for what they believed to be right and deserved. Leaders began to gather as assemblies of government. Plans were made and the colonists of America started working together, building themselves into an independent country.
The battles of the revolution were tough. Britain was a much bigger, well established country with more resources. After the first years of war, America had to ask for help from other European countries.
Lexington & Concord *Paul Revere's midnight ride
Assignment: Research 2 other battles you think were important. The British began to make unreasonable requests of the colonies, such as large taxes on everyday items like tea, sugar and glass. Colonies were struggling to live and began to feel that the monarchy was treating them unfairly. Leaders of the colonies requested seats in Parliment to represent the needs of the colonists but Britain refused. People of the colonies began to plan revolt against the government on the grounds that they should not be taxed without being represented, or having a voice in the choices and laws being made for them. Britain was too far away and did not care about the needs of the people living in the colonies, therefore being unable to uphold their responsibilities as a ruling government. Colonists believed they had the right to rebel and the formed their own government. Britain sent more soliders to try to maintain power but their presence only made things worse. The Boston Massacre Patriot versus Loyalist The Writing King George 111 Success & the ideas of a government held accountable Acts of Government Review The French & Indian War Assignment: Compare how the Stamp Act, Quartering Act and Townshend Acts are unfair to Americans but fair to British rulers. Assignment: How are the taxes unfair? List the items colonists were taxed for and describe how extra cost would affect the people.
Would being represented in Britain have helped? Would the Revolution had happened if the shooting at Boston had not? Seeds of War Battles & Leadership Vocabulary Colonies Crossword The trouble starts & British influence begins to fade. Assignment: Using your social studies book and the video resources, write a summary of why the Declaration was written and what it means. Colony becomes Country The American Revolution Exploring the Americas Get a Visual General Washington Next is a long one! militia Quartering Act Stamp Act guerilla warfare Independence Liberty What other famous event happened in Boston as a protest to British taxes? The Sons of Liberty Assessment Activity *Please wait until work is assigned in class Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Hampshire New York, Deleware, Pennsylvania Colonization Colonization had many benfits for the governing country. New and plentiful resources were made available to more people. Products traded included things produced naturally and things that had to be made by man & machine, or manufactured.
Explorers claimed lands that seemed unpopulated and uncivilized
Countries opened the land to settlers that would gather resources and produce crops and other items for them
This started the import/export business and economic activity in the colonies, encouraging more people to try to make a living there.
The colonies grew and life there became special in each of the 3 areas: New England, Middle and Southern. Examine the map and list the products and resources you find. Organize the list of exports into 3 categories: New England, Middle & Southern How many trade routes were there? Where were the ports? Examine the map.
What do you notice about the shapes of the colonies?
What do you notice about the locations of large cities? New England Middle Southern Colonies Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, then Main and New Hampshire
*Important cities: Boston & Providence Roanoke was the first chance to build a colony in North America but it did not succeed. Jamestown was given a shot years later in the Virginia area but again ran into problems. The colony survived but just barely the first year. Pilgrims had more personal reasons for leaving Europe to settle in North America. They headed for Jamestown but were blown off course landing the Mayflower in Plymouth, Massachusetts. What does pilgrim mean? What poor choices did the 1st Jamestown colonists make? Who was John Winthrop? Who was Roger William? Who was Thomas Hooker? Another group of people looking for freedom of religion were the Puritans. They wanted a more pure and simple church that followed the rules of the Bible in worship and government. In 1630, they sailed to the colonies. As more people came to the colonies, they began to spread out to look for resources and ways to make a living. This pushed the colonists into Native American territory, lands in New Hampshire had been used by Indians for thousands of years. Battles began to break out between natives and colonists. What tribe attacked colonists in the New England area? While the northern and southern colonies were claimed and settled by England, the middle colonies were originally owned by the Dutch. The ports of the middle colonies and the connection it would make between the other 2 groups of colonies made England want the area. New York, New Jersey, Delaware, Pennslyvania
*Important cities: New York City & Philadelphia Once England had taken the Middle colonies, the King was able to pay a debt he owed to the father of William Penn. The King gave him a charter for the area below New York and Penn took people there from his religious group the Quakers. Quakers did not follow the English church. Penn's colony grew to be very successful with Philadelphia becoming the largest city. What did the Quarkers believe? Mixing cultures was one result of colonization, especially in the Middle colonies. People that came from Holland to settle when the area was Dutch owned were allowed to stay when the English took over. Customs blended as many different people lived and worked together.
The Middle colonies also had a blended economy. The soil and climate were better for growing crops, which earned them the name "breadbasket" as they supplied the NE area and England, but people also made many manufatured goods. What were somethings that happened because cultures were mixed? Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia
*Important cities: Baltimore, Richmond, Wilmington, Charlestown, Savannah The Southern colonies had the perfect climate, excellent tidewater soil, and a long growing season making their lands perfect for farming. Southerners farmed huge tracts of land and grew cash crops. The economy and way of life was based around these large crops, especially tobacco, indigo and cotton. Manufactured goods were brought in on trade boats from the Middle colonies and Indies inslands. Due to the great need for field workers, many farmers of the South used slaves to plant and harvest crops. Watch the video; make connections to the explorers we have discussed and make observations about the progress of colonizing North America. Wrap Up Review What was Virginia's cash crop? What did James Oglethorpe do and why? The Southern colonies are unique because Virginia was the first to be colonized and Georgia was the last of the original 13 colonies. Can you name them all? Don't forget the Test Prep homework for Chapters 5 & 6!
If you finish and want to get a head start on Monday's topic, watch the video below. We will discuss lesson 1 in Chapter 7 on Monday. It will be included in the test on Tuesday. Test Practice Questions Use your strategies & resources! Assignment: Identify the key events of the American Revolution in this video. American Revolution Sesame Street Style The Revolution The Declaration The Story of Us Wednesday/Friday Monday Wednesday telescope vid lat & long video The Silk Road Finding a Trade Route The Standards Trade Between Europe & Asia 1492 the King & Queen of Spain send Columbus off in August, sailing in the Nina, Pinta, & Santa Maria.
By October he had found the Caribbean, though he thought it to be islands in the Indies. Columbus brought back items and stories that inspired a jump into exploration.