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Cold War

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Manjola Bali

on 28 May 2015

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Transcript of Cold War

Cold War Hotspots and Flashpoints
The Berlin Airlift
When WW2 ended, both Germany and Berlin were divided into 4 sections with the United States, Unites Kingdom, France and the Soviet Union had their own zones.
Avro Arrow
This fear has inspired them to spend more on the military and defense system than on any other budget, for the next 15 years.
A Canadian aircraft company, A.V Roe Canada, would use its best experience to design and build a new, all-weather,supersonic jet interceptor- the Avro, or CF-105. These planes would be spread out all over Canada to be called into action if an enemy aircraft was sighted.
On October 4,1957, a huge crowd gathered at Malton, Ontario, for the first showing of the Arrow to the public and press.
The Arrow's debut was overshadowed by the launch of the Soviet Union's Sputnik1, the first artificial satellite to be put into orbit around the earth.
This caused awareness because Western scientists believed that the same technology could lead to unmanned ballistic missiles-which the Arrow was not designed to stop.
The Establishing of the United Nations
From 1920-1946, the League of Nations was involved with many peacekeeping acts, however they had failed to maintain world peace when WW2 broke out, leading the nations to failure.
Although the United States never joined the League, they did mention of forming a new international organization that would enforce peace and prevent conflict, which was brought to attention by the U.S President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
The Atlantic Charter is seen as the foundation of the Declaration by the United Nations, which was a declaration made by both U.S President Franklin D. Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, it issued outlining what would occur in the post-war world between the Allies .
Later on using the name “United Nations” to describe their alliance, 26 nations signed the document on January 1st, 1942 and all agreed to fight against the Axis Powers.
Suez Crisis
The tensions between U.S and Soviet Forces rose as they confronted each other with tanks along the Berlin wall barrier.
Other problems transpired, for U.S representatives felt that Soviet guards had no authorization to check their identities while on their side of the checkpoint.
The standoff between the opposing tanks continued until both sides eventually agreed to withdraw their vehicles from the area.
Throughout the years, thousands of Germans managed to cross the Berlin Wall and safely enter West Berlin, while others were either captured or killed .
The Fall of the Berlin Wall
NATO and the Warsaw Pact
US felt that a political and military alliance with Western Europe would protect them against the Soviet's attempts of expansion and interference to other countries.
The Treaty of Brussels, formerly signed between Belgium, UK, France, Netherlands and Luxembourg, are seen as the foundation of NATO. In feedback to the creation of NATO, the Warsaw Pact was established on May 14th, 1955 with 8 Eastern European members agreeing to collective security.
It was evident that the USSR had overall control of the Warsaw Pact, many believed that the Warsaw Pact was formed mainly because of West Germany's alliance with NATO (May 9th, 1955).
The alliance was made to protect communist nations against Allied attacks, allowing the Soviets to have greater authority over the nations within the Warsaw Pact.
In late December 1979, the Soviet Union sent thousands of their troops into Afghanistan.
The Afghanistan communist government was fighting against the anti-communist rebel group Mujahideen with the USSR's support.
The Mujahideen rebellion had the help of the United States and their forces. The U.S and other supporting countries provided the anti-communist group with better equipment and weapons.
Millions of civilians left their homeland and fled to Pakistan or Iran to escape the war-torn country.
The 5 permanent members were: Republic of China, USSR, France, the United Kingdom, and the United States ratified the Charter along with other signatures on October 24th, 1945.
Ever since the creation of the United Nations, many peacekeeping missions have been successful, including the ones that had occurred during the Cold War.
Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev became the President of the Soviet Union on March 15th, 1990. During this time, the Soviet Union suffered major economical problems due to slow technological advancement and the poor state of society altogether.
Appointed as the General Secretary in 1985, Gorbachev promoted his policies of glasnost and perestroika (openness and restructuring), in effort to democratize the the Soviet political system and improve the economy.
Perestroika was the reform program that focused more on economical issues and the restructuring of the government and political system. As elections were being implemented, the semi-free market system began to grow.
Signed between the Soviet Union and United States, the INF Treaty reduced the amount of nuclear arms each nation possessed and eliminated an entire group of nuclear weapons.
( Glasnost and Perestrokia)

Korean War
The Establishment of the Berlin Wall
Cuban Missile Crisis
DEW, Mid-Canada Line,
Pinetree Network

Igor Gouzenko
Before the establishments of the United Nations, an international organization called the League of Nations existed with similar objectives.
The idea of the United Nations was widely supported due to the start of another world war.
Before the United Nations became a treaty, the Charter of Rights – was to be signed by the 51 founding members.
On June 26th, 1945, all nations except Poland were represented at the conference in San Francisco where the Charter was signed, but Poland later signed it on October 15th, 1945.
Even though Berlin was controlled by the 4 nations, the state was located within the Soviet sector, which allowed them to easily close all canals, highways, and railways, on June 24th, 1948 between the Allied zones and the Western sectors of Berlin.
The purpose of the blockade was to force the Western Allies out of Berlin and eventually occupy the entire state.
After a while the Soviet Union had offered to lift the blockade if the Allies agreed to leave their areas, but they refused. So instead of withdrawing, the 3 Allies decided to merge their western-occupied sections together and establish one economical zone.
The US and the UK launched an airlift in effort to supply West Berlin with food and resources. Continuing with involvement the Canadian Air Force, the Royal US Air Force, the Royal New Zealand Air Force, the Royal Australian Air Force, and the South African Air Force all contributed to the Berlin Airlift.
For 15 months the operation continued with cargo planes delivering over 2 300 000 tons of supplies into the state, and the efficiency of the airlift kept increased as planes were landing every 45 seconds- transporting over 8 000 tons of resources daily to Berlin.
Then on May 11-12th, 1949 the Soviets finally lifted the blocked due to the Allied forces counter- blocking East Germany's communication lines and causing shortages.
Due to the failure of the Soviet blockade, many people associated the Berlin Airlift with power and freedom, for the Allied forces went against the USSR, which kept Berlin alive.
NATO is the creation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization occurred on April 4th, 1949 when the North Atlantic Treaty was signed by its 12 founding nations.
Collective defense systems would be provided through NATO in any case that if an outside government were to attack one within the alliance.
One of the main reasons for establishing NATO was because of the Soviet's aggression with the Berlin blockade and the anticipated conflict that would .
During the Cold War there was never a direct encounter between the two groups but near the end of the Cold War, members within the Warsaw Pact were faced with political problems, specifically Romania and the revolution that occurred.
The Warsaw Pact officially dissolved on July 1st, 1991 and NATO has since then remained the largest military alliance and continues to provide protection against external party aggression.
The Korean War began on June 25th, 1950, between North Korea, South Korea, and their allies. The Korean Peninsula was divided by government ideologies, with the North supporting and advising by communist forces and the South having an established democratic government.
The war broke out when North Korean military forces crossed the 38th parallel – the boundary that separated the country – and invaded South Korea.
As the United States occupied the South, it was decided that they would defend them against communism along with United Nations' assistance under US command.
North Korean troops captured Seoul (the capital of South Korea) but were forced to retreat when the United Nations launched sea operations with their forces ported at Incheon. But with their defensive tactics not working effectively, US President Harry S. Truman decided to change their plan by making advances across the 38th parallel and towards the Chinese border.
Considering the situation as armed aggression, Communist China intervened enemy advancement with an offensive attack and pushed the UN and South Korean forces out of the North. In effort to cross the 38th Parallel once again, a Commonwealth Force was formed in February of 1951 with members Canada, Great Britain, Australia, New Zealand, and India all working together.
The Commonwealth troops fought together in the following months against North Korean and Chinese forces. The Korean War eventually became a stalemate in July of 1951 as negotiations were made between the enemies.
After 2 years of debate, an Armistice was signed on July 27th, 1953, deciding the division of the Korean Peninsula and ending the war.
As Korea remains separated, there is no clear winner of the war, but many believe the South Koreans and their allies were successful since communism did not spread.
The Vietnam War broke out on November 1st, 1955, between the communist supporting North Vietnam and the anti-communist government of South Vietnam. The war did not only take place in Vietnam, but also in Cambodia and Laos.
The North Vietnamese leader, Ho Chi Minh, was fighting against the Japanese and French colonial power for the independence of Vietnam. Japanese forces left the country while the French stayed with the United States supporting their fight in maintaining their colonial empire.
The United States pledged to their containment policy and believed that if Vietnam fell under Soviet Union expansion, the rest of Southeast Asia would as well – this was known as the
domino theory
Eventually the French withdrew and left the country, after an agreement was made at the Geneva Conference. Elections were to be held for reuniting Vietnam; however nothing ended up happening, leaving the country divided along the 17th parallel with the North's capital at Hanoi and Saigon being the South's capital.
While Ho Chi Minh held power in the North, Ngo Dinh Diem became South Vietnam's first president, as he was against communism and supported by many. Since Ngo Dinh Diem shared the same ideology as the U.S, he was fully supported by their forces. Communist soon appeared in the South as the Viet Cong, a communist organization against the South Vietnamese government and their allies, fought alongside the North in the war.
With the United States now involved with the conflict, the Vietnam War continued to escalate as U.S troops were constantly sent in and struggled with high casualty rates. With a major assault made by the North Vietnamese, called the Tet Offensive, anti-communist troops were unable to overcome the attack and the U.S plans of winning were shut down.
Eventually the United States involvement in the war ended on January 27th, 1973 after an agreement to a truce was made at the Paris peace talks.
The Vietnam War ended on April 30th, 1975 when South Vietnam fell under communism and surrendered, reuniting as the Socialist Republic of Vietnam on July 2nd, 1976.
The Suez Canal was constructed over 10 years and opened in November 1869. Egyptian leader, Nasser, wanted to nationalize the Suez Canal – believing it belonged to the Egyptians so they built it.
In order for external parties to use the canal, they would have to pay a fee Nasser charged for transporting goods.
Since Britain and France partly owned and controlled the canal, this became an international issue politically and economically.
The Suez Canal crisis began on October 29th, 1956 after British, French, and Israeli forces executed their plan to attack the regain control by invading Egypt. Their goal was to reclaim the canal and allow all nations free access.
The Egyptian forces were supported by the Soviet Union military and with the US not wanting involvement in the assault, Britain felt betrayed by their former colony, and tension forming between the two nations.
Nasser does not withdra but instead decides to bomb the Suez Canal in order to deter enemy forces. Canada then engages in conflict in hopes of de-escalating the situation and resolving the crisis. Canadian Secretary of State for External Affairs Lester B. Pearson insisted that peacekeeping efforts be made by the United Nations with their 1st large scale force.
Although majority of the votes were in favour of peace, the three nations continued to be aggressive in Egypt. On November 6th a truce was arranged with the British, French, and Israeli forces who were reluctant of withdrawing due to the appearance of defeat.
Eventually the crisis ends peacefully with the Egyptians coming out conquering, Britain and France become less influential in the Middle East and Pearson is given a Nobel Peace Prize and the canal reopens for shipping on April 24th, 1957.
The North American Aerospace Defense Command is an organization that provides both Canada and the United States with mutual protection.
Both nations agreed upon aerospace warning and alert of any potential threat, air sovereignty, and overall defense of North America.
The organization was formally built in 1961, but has been in use since 1958. It's headquarters are located at the Peterson Air Force Base in El Paso County.
Also, since Canada had cancelled the Avro Arrow, they no longer had a main source for aerial self-defense, so relying on the United States.
During the Cold War, NORAD had faced several issues being that false warning alerts were made on at least three tries.
Throughout history, NORAD has been reorganized twice – once in 1968 and another time in 1980.

It was then decided that the aerospace defense command structure change in order to accommodate a more effective method of alerting other nations.
Following the Cold War, NORAD has since then expanded and now covers a wider range of operations.
The construction of the Berlin Wall began on August 13th, 1961 under the command of the communist government in East Germany. Overnight the Berlin wall was constructed along with communication lines between both sides cut .
Prior to the wall's erection, citizens of Berlin could freely travel to and from East Berlin to West Berlin for work, school, and etc.
The main reason for building the wall was to prevent East Germans from fleeing the communist side to join the capitalist society located in the west.
The wall allowed USSR forces to have more control over Eastern Europe and keep communism in Berlin .
Since the citizens of Berlin were not told earlier, many families and friends who lived apart from each other stayed separated.
The wall was also called the “anti-fascist protective rampart,” for the East Germans believed the United States and other Allied nations were fighting for fascism.
They wanted to deter Allied forces from advancing with the fascism remark.
The Berlin Wall became stronger and sturdier as time went on with guard posts, barbed wire, and other methods of obstruction implemented; expansion and modification of the wall continued to occur.
Prior to the Cuban Missile Crisis, the Bay of Pigs invasion took place in which the Americans attempted to overthrow the Castro regime but ultimately failed.
In order to prevent future enemy invasions, the Soviet Union and Cuban government secretly agreed upon the placement of nuclear missiles in the country. As the agreement was made in July of 1962, construction of missile sites began shortly after.
US intelligence and spy planes discovered the missile silos and concluded that Cuba was to be equipped with nuclear weapons.
Instead of launching an air strike against Cuba, United States President John F. Kennedy decided to set up a naval and aerial blockade in effort to stop the Soviet Union from arming the missile silos.
On the same day of October 1962, President Kennedy sends a letter to USSR leader Khrushchev, demanding that they must remove the missile bases and any offensive weapons in Cuba.
On October 24th, 1962, the Soviet leader responded to the demand by ordering the Soviet naval forces to disregard the blockade and continue proceeding. If the Americans were to challenge them, the move would be seen as aggression and further action would take place.
For 13 days, a standoff transpires between the two opposing sides while the world fears for WW3.

The crisis eventually ended on October 28th, when Khrushchev agreed to remove their missiles in exchange that the United States lift their blockade on Cuba.
Détente is the term used to describe the calm period of time in political situations. The Détente period began in 1969.
Throughout the duration of the Cold War and the Cuban Missile Crisis, the two opposing nations – the United States and Soviet Union – mutually settled into a decade of nonaligned activity.
Telephone lines between the two nations were set up to allow the leaders easy interaction and direct communication with each other.
During the Détente period, several treaties and agreements were made including SALT I and the Helsinki Accords.
These agreements regarded nuclear weaponry, military establishments, and political boundaries.
Right after, SALT I, SALT II was also signed by the two superpowers, however the treaty was never ratified.
The United States-Soviet Union relations began to escalate when problems emerged in the raging Vietnam War.
The Cold War Détente came to an end when Soviet forces invaded Afghanistan and the two nations became apparent enemies once again. In1979, marks the year when the Détente ended.
The North American Aerospace Defense Command is an organization that provides both Canada and the United States with mutual protection.
Both nations agreed upon aerospace warning and alert of any potential threat, air sovereignty, and overall defense of North America.
The organization was formally built in 1961, but has been in use since 1958. It's headquarters are located at the Peterson Air Force Base in El Paso County.
Also, since Canada had cancelled the Avro Arrow, they no longer had a main source for aerial self-defense, relying on the United States.
During the Cold War, NORAD had faced several issues being that false warning alerts were made on at least three accounts.
Throughout history, NORAD has been reorganized twice, once in 1968 and another time in 1980.
It was then decided that the aerospace defense command structure change in order to accommodate a more effective method of alerting other nations.
Following the Cold War, NORAD has since then expanded and now covers a wider range of operations.
As the Cold War was approaching its end, borders progressively reopened and citizens were allowed to travel freely once again.
The wall officially fell on November 9th, 1989 with millions of people coming together to destroy the remains.
After 28 years of being divided, Berlin was finally reunited as a single state of Germany.
The total length of the Berlin was roughly 155 kilometers.
The slow progression of Soviet forces led to a stalemate between the opposing ideologies.
After 9 years of conflict, the USSR eventually signed an agreement to remove their troops and withdraw from Afghanistan.
The Soviet war in Afghanistan officially ended on February 15th, 1989.
The invasion of the USSR has resulted in the Afghan Civil War and a war that is still occurring to this day.
Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan
Prior to becoming leader of the USSR, Gorbachev was part of the Central Committee of the Communist Party.
The policy of glasnost focused more on social and political issues – the Soviet people and their rights. This resulted in less censorship and restriction and more freedom of expression and transparency of the government.
The Intermediate Range Nuclear Forces Treaty was also signed during Gorbachev's administration on December 8th, 1987.
Many believe that Gorbachev's glasnost and perestroika policies led to the resolution of the Soviet Union and the official collapse on December 25th, 1991.
Igor Gouzenko, a minor Soviet Embassy employee in Ottawa, single-handedly blew apart the wartime alliance of the Soviet Union, Canada, Britain, and the United States.
He shot to prominence by risking his life to defect- switch political allegiance-from the Soviet Union to Canada on September 5th, 1945.
Gouzenko revealed a vast Soviet spy network operating in Canada, Britain, and US. He claimed that the Soviets were developing this network in preparation for a WWIII.
Theses revelations led to an arrest of several Canadians, mostly civil servants, when the government used the secret war measures act to secretly detain and question them with any charges.
Not only it was shocking to the people that there was a large number of spies but that most of them were native-born Canadians and Americans.
Gouzenko testified that Canadian spies had been communicating crucial information bout nuclear weapons to the Soviets. Which put an immediate end to ant plans for the UN to control nuclear arms.
Instead, the US would build up an enormous arsenal of nuclear weapons to defend itself from any future Soviet Nuclear attack.
The Gouzenko affair set the tone of suspicion and paranoia that prevailed during the cold war. Anyone with communist or socialist connections and learnings were suspected.
After all the incidents and wars that have happened, Canadian politicians have be becoming more concerned about a surprise attack from the Soviet Union.
For example: in 1953 the government agreed to pay for the development of a new aircraft for the Royal Canadian Air Force.
Unfortunately the costs of development kept mounting - the original production estimate of $2 million per aircraft rose to $12 million. At the same time, demands for the interceptors fell, as the world entered the age of the long-range missiles.
Leaving a negative public reaction marked the beginning of the decline of Diefenbaker's popularity, and led to his eventual defeat.

Cancelling the Arrow made good economic sense but it left an effect on Canada. Most of the scientist and engineers involved moved to the US, and Canadians bemoaned the devastation of the Canadian aircraft industry.
Work Sited
United Nations- http://www.e-ir.info/2011/06/10/the-un-during-the-cold-war-a-tool-of-superpower-influence-stymied-by-superpower-conflict/
The Berlin Aircraft- http://www.spiritoffreedom.org/airlift.html
NATO and the Warsaw pact- http://www.history.com/topics/cold-war/formation-of-nato-and-warsaw-pact
Korean war-https://history.state.gov/milestones/1945-1952/korean-war-2
Vietnam- http://www.coldwar.org/articles/50s/vietnam_conflict.asp
Suez Crisis- https://history.state.gov/milestones/1953-1960/suez
Cyprus- http://www.journal.forces.gc.ca/vol12/no1/41-granatstein-eng.asp
Est. Berlin Wall & Fall of Berlin Wall - http://www.history.com/topics/cold-war/berlin-wall
Cuban Missile- http://www.atomicarchive.com/History/coldwar/page13.shtml
Détente- http://www.history.com/topics/cold-war/detente
NORAD- http://www.canadahistory.com/sections/eras/cold%20war/NORAD.html
DEW,etc- http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/166086/Distant-Early-Warning-Line-DEW-Line
Avro Arrow-
Invasion of Afghan.- http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1499983/Soviet-invasion-of-Afghanistan
Gorbachev- http://www.history.com/topics/cold-war/perestroika-and-glasnost
The DEW line stood for the Distant Early Warning Line – a radar system that consisted of communication stations located from West Alaska to Greenland and Iceland, with the Arctic region of Canada.
During the Cold War, early detection of Soviet bombers was ideal for the Allies.
The purpose of the DEW line was to expose any suspicious Soviet activity in order to gain an advantage against any attack.
Prior to the construction of the DEW Line, the Pinetree Line and the Mid-Canada Line were already implemented as early detection systems, but were not capable of providing early warning in the ideal time span .
By the mid-1980s, aging facilities, improved technologies (such as the Airborne Warning and Control System), and advanced detection systems
Together with the diminished threat of Soviet aggression in the waning years of the Cold War, led to the demise of older early-warning systems such as the DEW Line.
Starting in 1985, the DEW Line system was replaced by the North Warning System, and many of the original DEW Line sites were abandoned or dismantled.
Construction of the Distant Early Warning Line began in 1955, taking 32 months to complete the radar system, the DEW Line became operational in 1957.
Throughout the Cold War, several operations regarding the DEW Line were launched along with the communication centers and radars being upgraded.
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