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Ch4: Life in the American Colonies

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Harry Jarcho

on 6 December 2016

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Transcript of Ch4: Life in the American Colonies

Chapter 4:
Life in the American Colonies

Lesson 2: Colonial Government
Protected Rights and Limited Monarchy
The Enlightenment
Lesson 1: Colonial Economy
Commercial New England:
Commercial
means having to do with business -with making and selling products
Impact of Geography
– New England had rocky soil and a short growing season, which made farming difficult, so NE colonists turned to other ways to make a living
whaling, fishing, lumbering, ship building, and trade became important parts of the NE economy
Those who did farm, practiced
subsistence farming
, which means growing food for ones own family to eat, not cash crop farming
Most NE farms were small, farmed by a single family, or by a small number of hired wage earners or indentured servants
Cash crop farming
, popular in the Middle and Southern colonies, means growing crops to make money by selling them

Chapter 4:
Life in the American Colonies

The Middle Colonies
Impact of Geography
- The Middle Colonies had more fertile soil and a longer growing season, which made cash crop farming a more realistic way to earn a living than New England
The Middle Colonies were America's "bread basket," which means that they grew mostly grains - grain crops are also called
staple crops
Most farms were large enough to require labor by indentured servants
The Middle Colonies were
culturally diverse
Colonists came from more countries and practiced a wider variety of religions than was true for New England or the Southern colonies
The rules set by the
Quakers
and their beliefs led to a great deal of diversity in Pennsylvania (as well as New Jersey and Delaware) - review Chapter 3 for details on this topic
Similarly, the beliefs and origin of New York's original Dutch settlers brought diversity to NY - review Chapter 3 for details on this topic
Life in the Southern Colonies
The Impact of Geography
- The Southern colonies had
fertile soil and a long growing season
, so that
cash crop farming
dominated the region
Large
plantations
came to dominate farming in the South
Indentured servants
were the first labor source
Indentured servitude was very harsh and many servants died of disease before they completed their term of service
When England's economy improved and jobs were easier to find, fewer poor Englishmen (and women) were willing to travel to America as indentured servants
The Growth of Slavery
- As it became more and more difficult to fill labor needs with indentured servants, Southern planters turned to
slavery
to meet their labor needs
A large slave trade grew, with millions of Africans kidnapped and sold into slavery in the Americas
The brutal sea voyage of Africans to the Americas was called the
"Middle Passage"
Tobacco
became the main crop in Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina
Rice
and
indigo
were the main crops in South Carolina and Georgia
Slaves Working on A Southern Tobacco Plantation
Crowded Conditions on the
Middle Passage
It is estimated that at fewer than 50% of the Africans on the slave ships survived the Middle Passage
Crowded Conditions on the Middle Passage
Representative Government
Local Government in the Colonies:
English Economic Policies:
Mercantilism & the Navigation Acts
The
Magna Carta
was a document signed by King John of England. It put in writing the fact that all Englishmen are entitled to certain
Civil Liberties
or
Civil Rights
Among the important rights guaranteed by the
Magna Carta
are:
The King cannot take away a person's
private property
The King cannot
tax
people unless a council of representatives approves the tax
The Magna Carta also contained the concept of
Limited Monarchy
- the idea that
the law is supreme
- even the King must obey the law.
This was a change from the concept of
Absolute Monarchy
, which stated that the King WAS the law, and could make laws himself
King John Signing the Magna Carta
The Magna Carta
(cover page)
A
legislature
is a law-making group, where laws are made by
representatives
elected by the people:
England's legislature is called
Parliament
(America's legislature is called
Congress
)
During England's
Glorious Revolution
, Parliament removed the king and queen from power. They named William and Mary the new king and queen after William and Mary agreed:
that Parliament was the supreme law making body of England
to
Limited Monarchy –
that they would obey laws passed by Parliament

Parliamentary Debate
England's House of Parliament
Shipbuilding
Whaling and Fishing
Thanksgiving
Harvesting wheat in Central NY
The Triangular Trade
The English Bill of Rights (1689)
Virginia House of Burgesses
New England Town Meeting
Mercantilism
is an
economic system
designed to build the wealth and power of a country
Mercantilism argues that
wealth is the key to political power
Wealth is gained through
trade
- when a country EXPORTS more than it IMPORTS, money (gold) flows INTO the country
Colonies fill two key roles for the mother country, they:
provide raw materials
for the mother country to make into manufactured goods to sell to other countries
serve as a market for those manufactured goods
(buy them from the mother country)
England passed a series of
Navigation Acts
which controlled trade and
required the colonies to sell most raw materials only to England
For example, the colonies could only sell their tobacco, sugar, rice, indigo, lumber, fish to England - not to other countries
Colonists began to resent the Navigation Acts, and began
smuggling
foreign goods into and out of the colonies
The colonists believed that the Navigation Acts violated their rights as English citizens
Navigation Acts
Use English ships
– No country could trade with the colonies unless the goods were shipped in either colonial or English ships
Use English crews
– All vessels had to be manned by crews that were at least three-fourths English
Export Restrictions
– The colonies were required to export certain products, such as tobacco, sugar, molasses, rice, and furs ONLY to England
Taxes on non-English imports
– Almost all goods shipped from Europe to the colonies had to be unloaded first at an English port, so that the English government could place an import tax on goods sold by European countries to the American colonies
Lesson 3:
Culture and Society

Life in the Colonies
American Beliefs
Colonial Education
Rapid Population Growth
A New American Spirit
Immigrants from many different cultures blended together to create a new culture - an American culture
"He is an American, who, leaving behind him all his ancient prejudices and manners, receives new ones from the new mode of life he has embraced, the new government he obeys, and the new rank he holds ...
Here individuals of all races are melted into a new race of man, whose labors and posterity will one day cause great changes in the world."
J. Hector St. John De Crevecoeur
French writer, describing the new American and the popular
"Melting Pot" Theory
of American cultural diversity
Family Roles
Gender roles were strictly defined in colonial culture
Colonial society was
patriarchal
- run by men
Fathers were the "breadwinners" - earning money for the family
Mothers ran the house - cooked, cleaned, and bore children
Children were expected to pitch in from an early age - boys began apprenticeships at approx. 12 years of age
Women ran the home
Apprenticeships
The first public schools were established in New England by the Puritans – being able to read the Bible was very important
The Great Awakening
The Great Awakening: A Religious Revival
The teachings of the
Great Awakening
were harsh, with an emphasis on sin and damnation, but the Great Awakening emphasized that, although they were sinners, all people could be saved, unlike the Puritan belief that man's fate was predestined, and that most people would not go to heaven
Emphasized that individuals could read and understand the Bible and religious faith on their own, rather than only accept the authority of their church minister
The Great Awakening gave greater
dignity and self-respect to individuals
, and threatened to undermine faith in authorities - both religious and political authorities
Revolution in Political Thought
Enlightenment thinkers believed that science, not the Bible, was the way to understand the physical world (like how the Earth was created)
Faith in human reason
- belief that people can understand the world and discover the Truth by using
scientific reasoning
and
experimentation
Scientific Revolution
Sir Isaac Newton Experiments:
The Scientific Method
Copernicus Explores the Universe:
The Sun, not the Earth, is the Center of the Solar System
The Enlightenment promoted:
Belief in
equality
and
"natural rights"
Belief that the
right to govern comes from the people
, not through divine right (of Kings)
Freedom of thought and expression
the idea of democratic government
Ideas of Freedom
Censorship
is the banning of printed material or speech that is critical of the government

is the right of newspapers to print the truth, even if it is critical of the government, government officials, or the nation
The Trial of John Peter Zenger
John Peter Zenger was arrested for criticizing the colonial governor in his newspaper, the
New York Weekly Journal
Zenger was found "not guilty."
His trial is considered the birth of
Freedom of the Press
in America
Lesson 4:
Rivalry in North America

Rivalry Between the French and the British
The French and Indian War
New British Policies
Guiding Question
: How did competition for land in North America lead to the French and Indian War?
Essential Questions:
How does geography influence the way people live?
How do new ideas change the way people live?
Why does conflict develop?
Essential Question
: How does geography influence the way people live?
Making a Living in the Colonies
Guiding Question
: How did the economic activity of the three regions reflect their geography?
Essential Question
: How do new ideas change the way people live?
Guiding Question
: Why are protected rights and representative government important principles?
English Principles of Government
Guiding Questions
:
What is mercantilism?
How did the colonists react to England's economic policies?
New England
The Middle Colonies
The Southern Colonies
Essential Question:
How do new ideas change the way people live?
Guiding Question
: What was life like for people living in the thirteen colonies?
Guiding Question
: What values and beliefs were important to the American colonies?
Essential Question
: Why does conflict develop?
Guiding Question
: What was the turning point in the French and Indian War?
Guiding Question
: How did American colonists react to new British policies?
The French and Indian War
was part of a worldwide struggle for empire between Britain and France.
In Europe, this was was called the
Seven Years War
.
British Expansion
The British wanted to expand across the Appalachian Mountains into New France because there was rich, fertile soil in the Ohio River Valley region
The French built a series of forts to protect their territory, because it was rich fur trapping land for them
Native Americans tended to side with the French because:
the French did not want to settle the land and turn it into farmland, which would destroy native hunting and trapping grounds
the French tended to treat Native Americans with greater respect, and their smaller numbers were less of a threat than British expansion
Native American Alliances:
The
Iroquois Confederacy
was an alliance of five Indian tribes: the Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Seneca, and Cayuga [later joined by the Tuscarora]
The Iroquois controlled the land between the British and French, which gave them power, because both the French and British wanted the Iroquois as military and trade allies
Whoever gained Iroquois support would be in a strong position against the other power
The St. Lawrence River was the highway that brought all French supplies into and out of the continent
If the British captured the St. Lawrence, the French would be helpless - cut off from France
After a string of French victories, the British turned the tide and slowly gained control of the St. Lawrence River
The key victories were the British capture of Quebec and Montreal, which cemented British control of the St. Lawrence River
The Treaty of Paris
The peace settlement ending the war was the
Treaty of Paris
(1763)
France abandoned its North American land claims
All land east of the Mississippi was ceded (given) to Britain
Native Americans were not included in the treaty - no one asked how they felt about their land being "traded" away
The French defeat on the Plains of Abraham, part of Quebec's defenses, led to the fall of Quebec and Montreal within the year
Impact of British Victory on Native Americans
:
No longer needing Native people as allies against the French, the British treated Native harshly
the British raised the prices they charged for goods they sold to Natives, and lowered the price they paid for furs
American colonists streamed onto Native lands and (at first) the British authorities didn't discourage or stop them
This led to conflict between Natives and settlers

To bring peace and reduce expenses, King George issued the
Proclamation of 1763
, which banned colonial settlement beyond the Appalachian Mountains
Colonists were furious that they were prohibited from settling, and tended to ignore the Proclamation
Colonists claimed that the Proclamation limited their freedom
They also resented the troops remaining in America, supposedly to protect them from Native attacks
Britain had gone deeply into debt to pay for the French and Indian War
They believed that since the American colonists had benefited from the British victory, they should help to pay for the war
British efforts to tighten the Navigation Acts and tax the colonists to help pay for the war led to colonial anger and, eventually, the
American Revolution
Pontiac's Rebellion
Native Americans resisted colonial expansion, resulting in fights like
Pontiac's Rebellion
Colonists asked for British troops to protect them from Indian attacks, but posting troops was expensive
Preaching at a Revival Meeting
Colonial Trade
Dutch Governor Peter Stuyvesant
Surrenders to the Duke of York
Colonists in America enjoyed certain
civil liberties
or rights as citizens that most common people in the world of the 17th century didn't have. This was because of several key events and ideas in England's history.
From 1600-1775 the population of the English colonies grew from less than 250,000 to 2.5 million. There were 3 main reasons for this growth:
Immigration
Slavery
High birth rates

Enlightenment Philosopher John Locke
The Proclamation of 1763
Freedom of the Press

Rice Cultivation in South Carolina

The
Mayflower Compact
:
A
compact
is a contract or formal, written agreement.
The Pilgrims set up a government and agreed to
obey the laws passed by their representatives
, who were to
make laws “for the common good.”
The Mayflower Compact was a step in the development of
representative, democratic government
in America –
common people
were allowed to participate in government and decision-making.


The Signing of
The Mayflower Compact
Early Steps Toward American Democracy
The Mayflower Compact
Colonial Assemblies
New England Town Meetings
New England Town Meetings:
New England colonies sometimes had
town meetings
instead of colonial assemblies.
In town meetings, colonists would vote directly, instead of electing representatives to make the laws
Both men and women could attend town meetings, but only Puritan males could speak and vote
Colonial Assemblies
Most colonies had a governor and a council selected by the King
They also had a
colonial assembly
, with representatives elected by the colonists
The first colonial assembly was Virginia's
House of Burgesses
Often, only white, male property owners could vote for representatives
In most colonies, membership in the church was also required
Women and non-whites were denied the right to vote
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