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Part of Speech

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by

Lizbeth Hernández

on 10 March 2014

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Transcript of Part of Speech

Parts of Speech
Nouns
A noun is a word used to name something: a person/animal, a place, a thing, or an idea
Pronouns
A pronoun is a word that replaces a noun. They eliminated the need of repetition.
VERBS
Verbs are generally express actions or a state of being.
Nouns can be
Singular
or
Plural
.
Singular Nouns
Name only one person, place, thing, or idea
.
The book
An apple
Plural Nouns
Name two or more persons, places, things or ideas.
Cats
Nouns can be
Proper Nouns

and Common
Nouns
.
Proper Nouns
Refer to specific People, places, things, and ideas.

Mr. White
Eiffel Tower

They are always capitalized!
Common Nouns
Are all other nouns.
cup
pencil
They are not capitalized unless they are the first word in the sentences.
People's name and tittles -King Henry, Mrs. Smith.
Names for deity, religions, religious followers, and sacred books -God, Allah, Buddha, Islam, Catholicism, Christians.
Races, nationalities. tribes, and languages.
Specific places like countries, cities, bodies of water, street buildings and parks.
Specific Organizations.
Days of the week, months, and holidays.
Brand Names of product.
Historical periods, well-known event, and documents.
Titles of publication and written documents.
Nouns can also be collective
Are nouns that are grammatically considered singular, but include more than one person, place, thing, or idea in its meaning.
Nouns can be:
Concrete
: are nouns that you can touch.
Abstracts
: are nouns that cannot be physically held.
Nouns can be

Gerunds.
A gerund is the -ing form of the verb and is used as a noun.
"Running is good for you"
Running

is the noun/gerund and
is
is the verb.
Personal Pronouns
:
refer to specific persons or things, can act as subject, objects, or possessives.
Singular:
I, me, you, she, her, he, him, it.
Plural:
we, us, you, they, them.
She
reads a lot of books.
Possessive Pronouns:

indicate ownerships or possession.
Singular:

my, mine, your, yours, hers, his, its.
"She returned
my
pencil to me because it was
mine
"
Reflexive Pronouns:
name a receiver of an action who is identical to the doer of the action.
Singular:
myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself.
Plural:
ourselves, yourselves, themselves.
"
Nelson
congratulated
himself
on his good grades in American Culture Class"
Intensive Pronouns
: emphasize a noun or another pronoun.
Singular:
myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself.
Plural:
ourselves, yourselves, themselves.
"I saw Johnny Deep himself at the park"
Here, himself emphasize the antecedent, Johnny Deep"
Reciprocal Pronouns:
expressed shared actions or feelings.
Each other
One other.
"Nelson and Liz help
each other
with Grammar class"
Indefinite Pronouns: refer to non-specific persons and things.
All, another, any, anybody, anyone, anything, both, each, either, everybody everyone, everything, few, many, neither, nobody, no one, nothing, one, several, some, somebody, someone, something.
Many
believe that UFO's exist, but
nobody
can prove it.
Demonstrative Pronouns:
are also considered nouns markers. they "point" towards nouns.
This, that, these, those.
"That guy is handsome"
Interrogative Pronouns:

introduce questions.
Who, Whom, Whose, Which, What.
Who is going on vacation? To whom will the teacher give an "A"?
Relative Pronouns:
introduce dependent clauses and refers to a person or thing already mentioned in the sentence. (i.e. the antecedent).
Who, whoever, whom, whomever, whose, which, that
The English
that we learn
in class will help us pass English 1101.
that we learn
is the adjective clause that describes
English.
And,
that
is the relative pronoun.
Q: Which English?
A: the English that we learn in class.
ADJECTIVES
An adjective modifies or describes a noun or a pronoun.
The adjectives come before the noun.
"The Beautiful Princess danced all night"
Adjectives also come after linking verbs.
Elliot feels happy.
Adjectives can be used to make comparisons.
For most adjectives of one or two syllables, you can add -er.
Faster, stronger, greater.
For adjectives longer than two syllables, you should use the word more.
Nelson is
more handsome
than my brother.
Adjectives can also be used as a superlatives.
This is usually done by adding -est to the end of an adjective that is one or two syllables.
The loudest, the coolest, the smartest.
If an adjective is three syllables or longer, you must use the words the most.
"Patch is the most handsome guy in the classroom."
ADVERBS
An adverb is a word that modifies an action verb, and adjective or another adverb.
The teacher
carefully
graded the homework.
Carefully

is an adverb that modifies the action verb to
grade.
Tommy was
extremely
enthusiastic about doing homework.
Yan Ko ran out the classroom
very
quickly.
Extremely
is an adverb that modifies the adjective
enthusiastic
.
Very
is an adverb that modifies the adverb
quickly.
Relative adverbs

introduce questions and dependent adverbial clauses. They answer the questions
When?
and
Where?
Adverbs of Frequency
indicate answer the question
How often?
CONJUNCTIONS.
Are the scotch tape of grammatical world. They join together words and phrases.
Coordinating Conjunctions:
There are seven coordinating conjunction, you can use the mnemonic device
fanboys
to remember them.

F
or
A
nd
N
or
B
ut
O
r
Y
et
S
o
They can be used with commas to create compound sentences.
Marisol loves to dance, but her husband has no rhythm.
Correlative Conjunctions:
also join ideas, but they work in pairs.
Both...and
neither...nor
whether...or
either...o
not only... but also
Not only
am I happy about my grades,
but
I am also excited that you are learning!
Subordinating Conjunctions:
join an independent clause to a subordinating clause. That is, they join a clauses that can stand alone with a clause that cannot stand alone.
after, although, as, as if, because, before, even if, even though, if, since, so that, though, unless, until, when, whenever, where, wherever, whether, while.
Although
the students were tired, they still came to class.
INTERJECTIONS.
Are word used to express emotional states. They can usually be found in narrative writing, interviews, and in spoken English. They can stand alone.
Oh!, Wow!, Ouch!, Oops!, Hey!
"Oh! I'm late for classes."
PREPOSITIONS
Preposition are word that. like conjunctions, connect a noun or pronoun to another word in a sentence.
Common prepositions:
About
Above
Across
After
Among
Around
At
Before
Behind
Below
Beneath
Beside
Between
By
Down
During
Except
For
From
In
Instead of
Into
Like
Of
Off
On
Over
Since
Through
To
Toward
Under
Up
With
Without

A prepositional phrase is a group of words that begs with a prepositional and ends with a noun or a pronoun. They can act as adjectives or as adverbs.
"Alex, the student form Germany. wrote an excellent paper on the computer"
Action verbs:
show action.
He plays.
She sings.
They swim.
Linking Verbs:
link the subject to an adjective.
"Channing Tatum is handsome"
The linking verb
is
links the adjective
handsome
with the subject
Channing Tatum.

Main Verbs:

can stand alone.
Auxiliary Verbs:
also called helping verbs, serve as support to the main verb.
Have, has, had.
Do, does, did.
Be, am, is, are, was, were, being, been.
Should, could, will, would, might, can, may, must, shall, ought (to).
Transitive Verbs:

require a direct object in order to make sense.
Mary
takes
aspirin
for her headaches.
Here,
takes
is a transitive verb since the sentence
Mary
takes
has no meaning without its direct object
aspirin.
Intransitive Verbs:
do not need direct objects to make them meaningful.
Nelson
sings.
The verb
sings
has meaning for the reader without an object.
Verbs can be phrasal:
Phrasal verbs are made up of a verb and a preposition. The preposition gives the verb a different meaning than it would have by itself.
The verbs
look
has a different meaning from the phrasal verb
look up.
ARTICLES.
Articles signal that a noun is going yo follow.
The indefinite article
"a"
can only appear before nouns that begin with a consonant sound.
a book, a house, a world, a computer.
The indefinite article
"an"
can only appear before nouns that begin with vowel sound.
an apartment, an hour an article.
Use "the" with most nouns whose specific identity is
known
to the reader.
Yesterday I saw a group of ESL students.
The

students were playing with a ball.
Hernandez Orellana, Ingrid Lizbeth.
31-4693-2012
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