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Memory

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Erin Roberts

on 6 March 2017

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Transcript of Memory

Cognitive and Language Characteristics of Children with Learning Disabilities
Learning Styles
Attention
Children with attention issues, like ADHD are more likely to start talking later in age. They also are more likely to have language processing difficulties more than a simple delay. (Greathead,2017)
Memory
Students with language delays or language processing disorders have difficultly with auditory memory. Auditory memory is the ability to hear oral information and process it, retain it in one's mind, and then recall it. Auditory memory is not the same as working memory, but does require it.
Learning Styles
Children with language delay or language processing disorders usually have a different learning style than what is expected in a normal classroom. They have difficulty being good listeners, do not typically have good reading and oral language skills, and are not able to sit still, focus, and process what is being said for long periods of time.
Language Characteristics
problems with short term auditory memory
difficulty following instructions
slow processing of written and spoken language
difficulties in listening for information
problems with reading comprehension
poor ability to express themselves orally or in written form
difficulty finding the correct word to use
difficulty inferring meaning
problems relating new information to prior knowledge
Cognitive abilities are brain- based skills that allow us to learn, remember, problem solve, and pay attention.
Language skills are part of our cognitive abilities. They help us process symbolic information and therefore talk and understand language.
Memory
Children with learning disabilities often have difficulty with their short term memory and their working memory. Short term memory is the ability to recall information after a short period of time. Working memory is the ability to store information temporarily for immediate recall for a short time.
Attention
Children with learning disabilities often have difficulty paying attention. As many as 60% of students with learning disabilities also have some level of attentional difficulty. (Rock,1999)These usually relate to three types of attention; focusing on important activities in the classroom, being able to sustain their attention for a long period of time, and selectively giving their attention to what is most important.
The three main cognitive learning styles are visual, auditory, and kinesthetic. Visual style is learning information by associating it with images and techniques. Auditory style is learning through listening. Kinesthetic style is learning by physical activity or movement. Students with learning disabilities often have deficits in their verbal, sensory, or auditory skills and can only benefit from a certain style of learning. Students that have a learning disability and an attention disorder often benefit from kinesthetic learning as it engages them by allowing them to move and be involved in the learning.
Cognitive Characteristics
short attention span
poor memory
difficulty reading and/or writing
poorly coordinated
difficulty making friends
disorganization and other sensory difficulties
difficulty telling time
difficulty knowing right from left
works slowly
slow to learn new skills
transposes number sequences and confuses math signs
difficulty with word problems
struggle with adapting to new situations
Pragmatic Skills
Pragmatic skills are our social language skills we use to interact with others. They include what we say, how we say it, our body language, and whether it is appropriate to the given situation.(Hill,2008) Children with learning disabilities often struggle with these skills in the following ways:
use of inappropriate or immature oral language
have difficulty interpreting or inferring the language of others
choose socially unacceptable behaviors in social situations
inability to predict consequences for their social behavior
difficulty with complex social interactions (negotiation, persuasion, peer pressure, giving/receiving criticism)
Erin Roberts
SPE/584
March 6th, 2017
Dawn Ring
Full transcript