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Transcript of Curriculum Implementation
History of Curriculum Implementation
3 Approaches to Implementation
A process between the user and the institutional setting-that specific project goals and methods be made concrete over time by the participants themselves.
Mutual Adaptation in Classroom Organization
Wanted to see the transition from a traditional classroom to an open classroom
Chose classroom organization because it requires teachers to work out their own styles and it cannot be specific or packaged in advance
Rand's Change Agent Study
Implementation was a dynamic organizational process that was shaped overtime by interactions between project goals and methods, and the institutional setting.
Three different interactions characterized this process.
Local Material Development
Adaptive Planning and Staff Meetings
Mutual adaptation works with full commitment and effective implementation strategies
Also referred to as Issue-based curriculum
Students often dictate what an educator decides to teach or the kind of curriculum that is developed and implemented.
1) measuring the degree to which a particular innovation is implemented as planned
2) identifying the factors which facilitate or hinder implementation as planned
it is assumed that the curriculum is developed by experts outside the classroom
change is conceived to be a linear process in which teachers implement the curricular innovations developed by experts
curriculum is then evaluated to determine if planned objectives have been met
Considered to be successful when teachers enact the curriculum plan as stipulated.
An implementation scale and/or
checklist is developed in order to
assess the degree of implementation.
-Implementation is defined as, "the actual use of an innovation or what an innovation consists of in practice." (Fullan & Pomfret 1977)
Researcher sought to learn about controversial topic curriculum impact on teachers and students
Investigated a country-wide Holocaust curriculum implementation initiative.
Mixed findings led to several conclusions.
-The idea of curriculum implementation has only been around since the 1970's.
a local context
Curriculum implementation fails where local context and challenges are not taken into consideration
Curriculum needs to change as culture and social norms change.
"Controversial issues are not to be avoided but to be embraced, if done properly" ~A. Burron
The Latvian Study
Steps for Objectivity - Issue Analysis
2. Concerns/Allegations: Proponents and Opponents
3. Facts and Sources of Facts
5. Avenues of Influence
6. Recommended Action
Characteristics of the change
External to local factors (ex: government)
1997 - Present
Whole School Reform
High Challenge/ High Support
Issue is identified
Identify positions as objectively as possible
Facts and Sources of Facts
List all data that isn't disputable
What outcomes could occur
Avenues of Influence
Identify how to meet objectives
Identify all actions which might be taken
Relationship between behavior and beliefs
Nature of the innovation and adaptation process
Initiation, implementation and institutionalization
After completing Part One, as a group deliberate on what you would include in your "envelope" based on your assigned age/grade
"...new curricula are like "trajectories through a pedagogic space." They are "properly defined not by single lines in that space but rather by envelopes containing an infinite set of allowed solutions to the problems, envisaged by the curriculum designers." (Huntley, 2009)
What did you learn from listening to other groups? New insights?
How can you see the envelope method used in your school or district?
What does "curriculum deliberation" mean to you?
1. The implementation of curriculum must be meaningful to teachers, students and community.
2. Curriculum implementation needs to be determined at a local level. Depending on demographics, this could mean localization at district levels or school levels.
3. Test required information needs to be specifically outlined, but educators need the freedom to teach required materials in a way that suits themselves and their students. This could change year to year.
Burron, Arnold. Controversial Issues: They Belong in the Classroom. Issue brief.
Independence Institute, n.d. Web. <www.independenceinstitute.org>.
"Chapters 18, 30." The Curriculum Studies Reader. Ed. David J. Flinders and
Stephen J. Thornton. 4th ed. London: Routledge, 2013. N. pag. Print.
"Curriculum Implementation and Sustainability." The SAGE Handbook of
Curriculum and Instruction. Ed. F. Michael. Connelly, Ming Fang. He, and JoAnn Phillion. Los Angeles: Sage Publications, 2008. 113-22. Print.
Huntley, Mary Ann. (2009). Measuring Curriculum Implementation. Journal for
Research in Mathematics Education, 40, 4, 355-362.
Pinar, William F. "Understanding Curriculum as Institutionalized Text."
Understanding Curriculum: An Introduction to the Study of Historical and Contemporary Curriculum Discourses. New York: P. Lang, 1995. 698-704. Print.
Pinar, W., Reynolds, W., Slattery, P., & Taubman, P. (1995). Understanding
Curriculum: An Introduction to the Study of Historical and Contemporary Curriculum Discourses. Studies in the Postmodern Theory of Education, 17, 699-703.
This is the traditional concept of curriculum development.
Politics in Curriculum Implementation
"Some decision-making processes relating to curriculum are essentially political in nature...But political decisions need not be devoid of rationality". (Johnson, 1974)
NIC (Normative Inquiry in Curriculum)
Emphasis is upon values and ethics, as contrasted with a primarily analytical approach
There would still be difficulties with this approach to Fidelity
"Yet in many communities never have teachers had so little curriculum decision-making power..." (Berman, 1988)
"...the fidelity approach to curriculum implementation tends to limit our appreciation for teaching as a creative and autonomous sphere of activity." (Pinar, 1995)
curricular materials and instructional strategies that the fidelity and mutual adaptation approaches base themselves on are seen as tools for students and teacher to use as they create the enacted experience of the classroom
The Eight Year Study
most comprehensive study of curriculum experimentation at the high school level
more effective schools had a willingness to undertake a search for valid objectives, organizing curricula and techniques in order to effectively attain the objectives, and using appropriate evaluation devices
uniformity would be neither necessary or desirable
Beyond the Surface Curriculum
teacher-along with the child as central figure in curriculum development
if educational change is to occur, changes in teacher thinking must occur
major emphasis is on the teachers' understandings of the curriculum
Curriculum Implementation and Change:
At the individual level:
takes place over time
involve anxiety and uncertainty
support is crucial
involves learning new skills
incrementally and developmentally
breakthrough occurs when you understand why this new way works better
organizational conditions make it more or less likely the process will succeed
involves pressure from peers and administrative leaders
Conflict and Consonance
situated knowledge, equated in practice
process of individual growth and change in thinking and practice
curriculum is shaped by perceptions of their contexts
She replaced "implementation" with "change" because she felt that implementation implies the fidelity approach
Quantity - how much of the textbook is covered
Quality: how well the textbook is implemented as defined by authors' intents
To what extent is classroom instruction consistent with the Standards?
Which educational theorist do YOU think would like this approach?