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Strep Throat

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by

David Pau

on 11 February 2013

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Transcript of Strep Throat

Strep Throat Symptoms Affects on the Body Contraction Cures Teenagers Strep Throat, or Streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis is a bacterial disease that causes a sudden sore throat. There are many diseases with Streptococcal bacteria, which are divided into two groups, Group A and Group B Streptococcal Bacteria. Strep throat is in group A. Strep accounts for about 10-15% of sore throats in adults who do a throat culture test, but studies vary, ranging from 4.7-44%. About 25% of adults have had exposure to the Streptococcal infection. Rheumatic Fever What is Strep Throat? David Pau 811 The Origin of Strep Throat Streptococcus Bacterium has always
been around, and was characterized by
the ancient Hindus, even though they had no
concept of germs or disease. Hippocrates, the greek doctor, also described this in 400
B.C.E. in new born babies, although at the
time it was thought that the cause of the
disease was lochia (a vaginal discharge weeks
after birth). Scarlet Fever ( a form of Streptococcus Bacterial Infection) is believed to be the cause of the plague of Athens.

In the late 1700's, Ignaz Semmelweis (a hungarian born doctor working in a viennese hospital) discovered that
Streptococcus Bacterium was contagious. At the time, peurperal fever ( a form of Streptococcus)
had a high mortality rate among pregnant
women. Doctors and medical students conducted autopsies to determine the cause of their deaths.
The Bacterium got on their hands, and they would go into the delivery room without washing their
hands. In 1735, evidence of Streptococcus was found in North America, with an outbreak in Massachusetts. It is believed that in 1879, a french scientist by the name of Louis Pasteur isolated Streptococcus Bacterium from the
bloodstream of a women with blood
poisoning in her leg. Complications Symptoms maybe mild
or severe. You will start
to feel sick after about 2-5
days after coming into
contact with the germ. ~Sudden fevers, highest on the
second day
~Chills ~Red, very sore throat, sometimes with white patches ~Usually hurts to swallow ~Tender Glands in the neck ~Loss of appetite, abnormal taste ~Possible Headache ~Possible Nausea ~Rash on the neck and chest ~A feeling that knives
or broken glass is
going down your throat ~Peritonsillar
abcess (cavity
filled with pus in
the throat-may block
the airway) ~Scarlet Fever ~Nephritis (inflamation of the kidney) February 2013 Strep throat only lives in humans,
it does not live in anything else in nature
However, it can live for a short time in an inanimate object, and can be transfered this way, but it is most commonly transfered through person to person contact. Strep throat frequently spreads through family members. It can spread through: sneezes, speech, sharing utensils among other ways. People do not have to be quarantined if they have Strep throat. It peaks in the winter, and school children get it most frequently. Strep throat
occurs when
bacteria gets
past the body's
defense
mechanisms. This could happen because of:
sores, other breaks in the skin,
or a variety of other ways. The bacteria then releases
toxins that kill the cell. Some health conditions that affect
the body's immune system may
make contracting this disease more likely. The bacteria has mechanisms to multiply itself The body tries to fight off
the bacteria by: Raising body temperatures. ~Sending in white blood cells Acute Rheumatic fever is the
most deadly complication of
Strep throat Acute Rheumatic
Fever is when tiny
bumps form on
the valve in the
heart called
vegetations This damages the valves This impaires the
valve function Vaccines and A throat culture is the
most reliable way to
diagnose Strep. If you have had:
recent household
exposure, patches
of pus inside the
throat, swollen
neck glands and an
absence of coughing,
you can skip a
throat culture. However, waiting a few days for
treatment doesn't increase the
chance of complications. However, throat
cultures are not
completely
accurate-some
patients that
tested postive
didn't have strep. Sore throats should only be treated with antibiotics if the strep test is positive, OR if the patient meets the criteria as previously stated Penicillin or amoxillin is usually first tried. Antibiotics are taken for 10 days,
even though symptoms usually
disappear after a couple of days Most doctors and
pediatricians can give
throat cultures Oral Penicillin V is recommended
because of its proven effectiveness,
safety, low cost ($2.39-$2.42) *NOTE antibiotics do NOT make you feel better,
unless you take the antibiotics within a few days
of contracting the disease. Aside from that,
antibiotics prevent complications. However, there are things that you
can do to help your sore throat, such as: ~Drinking warm liquids; lemon tea, tea with
honey etc. ~Gargling several times a day
with warm salt water ~Drinking cold liquids/eating popsicles ~Sucking on hard candies-not for young children ~Over the counter medication Toddlers Children Group A Streptococcus Bacterium is a leading cause of pharyngitis in kids age 5-15 (15-30%) In a meta-analysis (an analysis of a group of studies),
37% of kids under the age of 18 that presented a
health clinic with sore throats were tested positive. Have the same symptoms as adults, but
could be less defined Could have symptoms such as:
stuffy nose ~low fever For toddlers, there is no definate symptom of Strep. As well as the previously mentioned symptoms,
some other possible ones for toddlers are:
~abdominal pain ~enlarged tender neck glands ~Upper palate bleeding under the skin Prevention ~Stay home if you have
Strep throat ~Get a new toothbrush
after you are finished
antibiotics are no longer
sick If a repeated case occurs in the
family, you might want to check
if someone is a Strep carrier Outbreaks Large outbreaks are rare. Strep
is usually transfered through
limited close contact. However, there was one
incident in December of 1999
at the New South Wales minimum
security prison in Australia December 17-26:
72/256 inmates had Strep
throat. The disease was thought to be transmitted
through food Mistreatment A recent study has shown that 73%
of adult patients that presented a health clinic
with Strep throat were prescribed antibiotics.
68% of the antibiotics recommended were more
expensive and of a broader spectrum than recommended as per practice guidlines Vaccines With funding from the NIAID (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious diseases), a Group A Streptococcus vaccine was trialed. It was well tolerated by patients and has led to further research for a similar vaccine. This vaccine will prevent Strep throat, impetigo, rheumatic fever, and a variety of other complications. Resources "The father of medicine" Web resources: Clark College Strep Throat. Date Retrieved; 2 Feb. 2013. Clark College, http://web.clark.edu/tkibota/240/Disease/StrepThroat.pdf National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Group A Streptococcal Infections. Date Retrieved; 3 Feb. 2013. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. http://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/streptococcal/Pages/research.aspx Todar, Kenneth, PHD. Mechanisms of Bacterial Pathogenicity page 1. Date Retrieved; 2 Feb. 2013, http://textbookofbacteriology.net/pathogenesis_2.html University of California at Davis History of Streptococcal Pryogenes by Dr. Lefebvre, Jasmine Leyro. Date Retreived; 30 Jan. 2013. University of California at Davis. http://cosmos.ucdavis.edu/archives/2008/cluster7/leyro_jasmine.pdf University of California, San Fransisco Acute Rheumatic Fever and Rheumatic Heart Disease. Date Retrieved; 2 Feb. 2013. University of California, San Fransisco. http://medicine.ucsf.edu/education/resed/Chiefs_cover_sheets/acute_rheumatic_fever_and_rheumatic_heart_disease.pdf UptoDate Approach to Diagnosis of Acute Infectious Pharyngitis in Children and Adolesents. Date Retrieved; 2 Feb. 2013. UptoDate http://www.uptodate.com/contents/approach-to-diagnosis-of-acute-infectious-pharyngitis-in-children-and-adolescents?source=search results&search=strep+throat&selectedTitle=2%7E80 UptoDate Evaluation of Acute Pharyngitis in Adults. Date Retrieved; 2 Feb. 2013. UptoDate http://www.uptodate.com/contents/evaluation-of-acute-pharyngitis-in-adults?source=search results&search=strep=throat&selectedTitle=3%7E80 Web Resources (cont.): UptoDate Treatment and Prevention of Streptococcal Tonsilopharyngitis. Date Retrieved; 1 Feb. 2013. UptoDate http://www.uptodate.com/contents/treatment-and-prevention-of-streptococcal-tonsillopharyngitis?source=search results&search=strep+throat&selectedTitle=1%E80 U.S National Library of Medicine Strep Throat. Date Retrieved; 25 Jan. 2013. U.S. National Library of Medicine http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001663/ Virginia Government. Virginia Department of Health Group A Streptococcus Disease. Last updated; 12-21-2012. Date Retrieved; 3 Feb. 2013, http://www.vdh.state.va.us/epidemiology/factsheets/Streptococcal.htm Chen, Victoria MD CCFP FCFP Date Retrieved; 31 Jan. 2013 Goroll, Allan H., May, Lawence A., Mulley, Albert G. Jr. "Primary Care Medicine" Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott company, 1987 Smith, Tara C. Deadly Diseases and Epidemics Streptococcus (Group A). New York: Chelsea House Publishers; 2005. Other Resources: The End. Thanks for watching! Because of this, the valves
become leaky and the heart
fails over time. This also makes the heart
more vulnerable to infection-
if the valves get infected then
there is a high risk of death. The valves could also become partially fused together-this partially blocks blood flow Unlike many organisms, Streptococcus Bacterium
has NOT developed resistance to Penicillin
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