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Rise of West+Guilded Age

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Mark Twain Carroll

on 25 April 2013

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Transcript of Rise of West+Guilded Age

1865-1900 Post War America: The Rise of the West+Guilded Age Transcontinental Railroad 1861-1869 -people continued to move west in search of opportunity during and after the Civil War
-moving west became easier, faster, and safer with the building of the Transcontinental RR
-started being build in 1861...but stared moving quick in 1865
-Central Pacific Co. started in Sacramento, CA...Union Pacific Co. started in Omaha, NE=1775 miles
-Union Pacific employees were:
-Central Pacific used mostly... Chinese Workers -13,000 Chinese would work on the RR
-10% would die
-7 reason the Chinese were not accepted by Americans
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7. Connection Complete -May 10, 1869=Union+Central RR meet
-3 effects of the Transcontinental RR
1.

2.

3. Age of the Cowboy---1855-1890 -cowboys were responsible for driving longhorn cattle in Texas up to RR stations in Kansas
-shipped cattle in refrigerated RR cars
-40,000 cowboys at the height of the cattle drive
-ranchers+cowboys made millions=longhorns worth $40 each

-average age of cowboy was 24 yrs old
-30% were black or Mexican
-few owned horses or guns
-used horses owned by the ranchers who employed them Life of a Cowboy -2 main responsibilities were round-ups+drives
-round-ups were gathering of all the cattle the belonged to a particular rancher
-ALL the cattle lived on open plains...no fences
-recognized cattle by brands

-drives were moving the cattle up to RR stations in Kansas
-spent 18 hrs a day, 7 days a week on their horse during a drive
-cowboys were responsible for guarding+rounding up the herd, branding the cattle, breaking horses Cowboy Dangers -4 main hazards to a cowboy
1.

2.

3.

4. Homestead Act---1862 -used to encourage settlement in the west
-buy at least 50 acres of land...live on the land for 5 years and improve it=160 acres for free
-homesteaders went west by the tens of thousands

-4 inventions made farming the west possible
1.

2.

3.

4.

-farmers began to destroy the open range Range Wars -Farmers vs Ranchers
-cowboys cut barbed wire+shoot farmers
-poison animal wells
-both sides hired gunmen
-range wars raged for 20 years
-winner would eventually be... Wild West -west was mostly lawless and was a haven for outlaws and robbers
-Henry McCarthy=
-killed 12 people, shot by US Marshal Pat Garrett

-Martha Jane Canarray=
-robbed banks across the west, arrested and jailed

-Robert Parker= Henry Longabaugh=
-train robbers, led the Hole in the Wall Gang, killed in Bolivia while on the run Jesse James -born in Missouri, served in CS army
-Jesse+his brother Frank rob $1.2 million in banks+trains
-Frank settles down and becomes a farmer in 1882
-Jesse gets married and has 2 kids
-murdered by Robert Ford Lawmen -US Marshals were used to curtail lawlessness
-Wyatt Earp, Doc Holliday, William "Buffalo Bill" Cody

-James "Wild Bill" Hickock
-fast, accurate shooter
-expert gambler
-killed at shootout in Deadwood, AZ in 1876

-William "Bat" Masterson
-1860-69=Pony Express rider+buffalo hunter
-1870's=US Army scout
-1880's=rancher
-lawman on the side
-died in 1917 Indian Wars---1865-1890 -1,062 fights between NA tribes+US Army
-Plains Indians needed buffalo to survive
-1800=60,000,000 buffalo
-1900=700 buffalo
-buffalo hides used for factory belts

-NA use all parts of the buffalo
-hides=teepees, clothes, moccasins
-lungs+bladder=pouches
-chips=baby powder
-tendons=bow strings
-bones=tools
horns+hooves=glue
MEAT -many former enemy NA tribes allied with each other to fight the whites
-2 fiercest tribes were Apaches+Sioux

-Apache were led by Chief Geronimo
-using only 36 men, stacked US army posts for 10 years
-eventually forced to make peace when US Army started massacring Apache civilians

-Sioux led by Chief Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse
-largest victory at Battle of Little Bighorn
-136 Sioux killed
-all 258 US members of 7th Cavalry killed Indian Massacres -brutal treatment of NA civilians would eventually force their surrender
-Sand Creek-Nov 1864
-28 warriors and 110 women and children of the Cheyenne tribe killed by US cavalry

-Wounded Knee-Dec 1890
-US cavalry kills 90 Sioux warrior and 300 women+children

-massacres like this force the NA tribes to surrender their land and move onto reservations
-end of Native Americans relevance in US history Guilded Age -1880s-1890s
-rise of American industrial power
-no laws preventing monopolies allowed industrial titans to become the wealthiest people in world history

Titans of Industry

-steel+iron...$330 million=
-oil...$1.5 billion=
-banking=
-rail+shipping= American Inventors -Elisha Otis=

-Thomas Edison=

-Alexander Bell=

-George Eastman= Labor Problems -increase in industry made for a massive increase in wealth
-thousands of people moved off farms into cities
-immigrants swarmed cities by the tens of thousands
-unions struggled to fight for the rights of workers
-children were exploited the most

-1911...Triangle Shirt Fire
-146 girls died, Triangle Shirt Co. forced to pay $75 per life
-led to stricter safety regulations Immigration -largest American immigration movement in history occurred between 1870-1900
-most European immigrants landed in New York, stopped ________________ first
-mostly Italian+Eastern European
-all immigrants recieved a medical inspection...98% passed
-clerks would often change immigrant names
-lucky immigrants had relatives waiting for them
-little money, most spoke no English
-it would usually take 3 generations for an immigrant family to "Americanize" Urbanization -as industry grew, Americans left farms for the city in search of work
-cities struggled to cope with swelling populations
-pollution+crime were serious problems
-immigrants and poor lived in tenement housing, up to a dozen people sharing a single rooms
-took the work of reformers to battle urban problems

-Carnegie+Otis were also responsible for urban growth
-cities grew up...not out Progressive Era -progressives were similar to reformers
-battled societal ills plauging the country

-Upton Sinclair=author of "The Jungle"
-leads to creation of FDA

-Booker T. Washington=founded Tuskegee Inst, all black vocational school
-W.E.B DuBois=first black man to graduate from Harvard
-founded NAACP in 1909, worked for immediate end of segregation Progressive Presidents -presidents who supported the societal change stemming from the Progressive Era were known as Progressive Presidents
-3 of them
1.
2.
3.

-these presidents oversaw the passing of prohibition, women's suffrage, industrial growth, the boom of the city, and a strong foreign policy Teddy Roosevelt -born in New York in 1858
-most popular president since G Wash
-youngest, elected at age 43
-had severe asthma, overcame it when he took up boxing at age 20
-served in the Spanish-American War, founded own cavalry unit called the Rough Riders
-mid 20's went west and worked as a cowboy for 2 years
-fell in love with the west
-pushed for the national protection of parks such as Yellowstone, Yosemite, and the Grand Canyon
-created 50 wildlife refugees and 18 national monuments
-commissioned the building of the Panama Canal
-supported Progressive labor laws
-helped pass a minimum wage law, limited the workday to 8 hours, and ended child labor
-left the presidency at age 50
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