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Transcript of WEEK 4
John F. Kennedy was the 35th President of the United States, the youngest man elected to the office. On November 22, 1963, when he was hardly past his first thousand days in office, JFK was assassinated in Dallas, Texas, becoming the youngest President to die. As President, he set out to redeem his campaign pledge to get America moving again.
Lyndon B. Johnson
In the 1960 campaign, Lyndon B. Johnson was elected Vice President as John F. Kennedy's running mate. On November 22, 1963, when Kennedy was assassinated, Johnson was sworn in as the 36th United States President, with a vision to build "A Great Society" for the American people. In his first years of office he obtained passage of one of the most extensive legislative programs in the Nation's history.
Nikita Khrushchev led the Soviet Union during the height of the Cold War. Though he largely pursued a policy of peaceful coexistence with the West, he instigated the Cuban Missile Crisis by placing nuclear weapons 90 miles from Florida. At home, he initiated a process of “de-Stalinization” that made Soviet society less repressive.
Cuban leader Fidel Castro (1926-) established the first communist state in the Western Hemisphere after leading an overthrow of the military dictatorship. Castro’s Cuba also had a highly antagonistic relationship with the United States–most notably resulting in the Bay of Pigs invasion and the Cuban Missile Crisis.
Elvis Presley was apart of the rock and roll movement. He was quite a controversial artist due to his "sexual" dance moves. However, he made rock and roll music popular with white people. Before, it was seen as music for African Americans. He was known as "The King of Rock and Roll." He sangs songs such as Hound Dog, Rubberneckin', and All Shook Up.
Rock and Roll
Popular Rock singer, Richie Valens
Rock and Roll was a strong musical movement during the 50s and into the 60s. Coupled with the beat movement, it was seen as rebellious to listen to it. The music stemmed from traditional rhythm and blues. For the early parts of the movement, people viewed it as music for African Americans. As more white people began playing the music, it became popular amongst most people.
Poliomyelitis is a contagious, unpredictable viral infection that can cause temporary or permanent paralysis, deformity, or death. An epidemic in 1950 afflicted 32,000 children. Dr. Jonas Salk, a researcher at the University of Pittsburgh Medical School, developed a vaccine from killed viruses.
On October 4, 1957 American scientists heard a high-pitched radio beep being broadcast from overhead. It was Sputnik, the first man-made satellite to orbit Earth, and it was passing over the United States every 92 minutes as it whizzed around the planet at 18,000 miles an hour. And it was a Russian creation. It was followed less than a month later by a bigger satellite that carried a live dog into space. Americans had lost its lead in technology to its mortal enemy, the Soviet Union.
Cuban Missile Crisis
The Cuban Missile Crisis was the closest the U.S. has ever come to nuclear war. Cuba received nuclear weapons from the Soviets. A secret deal was made between Robert Kennedy and the Soviet ambassador. It said that the U.S. would take missiles out of Turkey and they would stop attempting to kill Castro as long as they took missiles out of Cuba.
In 1949, the prospect of further Communist expansion prompted the United States and 11 other Western nations to form the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). The Soviet Union and its affiliated Communist nations in Eastern Europe founded a rival alliance, the Warsaw Pact, in 1955. This alignment provided the framework for the military standoff that continued throughout the Cold War.
On August 13, 1961, the Communist government of the German Democratic Republic began to build a barbed wire and concrete wall between East and West Berlin. The official purpose of this Berlin Wall was to keep Western “fascists” from entering East Germany and undermining the socialist state, but it primarily served the objective of stemming mass defections from East to West. The Berlin Wall stood until November 9, 1989.
On November 22, 1963, President Kennedy was in Dallas, Texas to tie up political affairs. As he drove through the streets of Dallas he was greeted with crowds. As he was driving through, he was shot and killed. His vice president, Lynden B Johnson, was sworn in the same day.
Credit Card (Diners Club)
In 1950, the Diners Club issued their credit card in the United States. The Diners Club credit card was invented by Diners' Club founder Frank McNamara. The Diners Club card was at first technically a charge card rather than a credit card. American Express issued their first credit card in 1958. Bank of America issued the Bank Americard bank credit card later in 1958.
Although experiments with color television had coincided with the development of commercial black and white television, it was not until the 1950s that attempts were made to successfully launch color television. The first commercial color broadcast took place at 4:35PM on Monday, June 25th, 1951, when CBS offered an hour-long program entitled “Premiere” to an ad-hoc network of five stations in New York City, Boston, Philadelphia, Baltimore and Washington.
Obsessed with celebrity & consumer culture, Pop artist Andy Warhol created some of the most iconic images of the 20th century. Warhol drew widely from popular culture and everyday subject matter, creating works using the medium of silk-screen printmaking to achieve his characteristic hard edges and flat areas of color.
Pop Art Movement
Pop art is now most associated with the early 1960s such as Andy Warhol, Roy Lichtenstein, and Claes Oldenburg, but artists who drew on popular imagery were part of an international phenomenon in various cities from the mid-1950s onwards. Following the popularity of the Abstract Expressionists, Pop's reintroduction of identifiable imagery was a major shift for the direction of modernism.
In 1964, with the Cuban Missile Crisis fresh in viewers' minds, the Cold War at its frostiest, and the hydrogen bomb relatively new and frightening, Stanley Kubrick dared to make a film about what could happen if the wrong person pushed the wrong button -- and played the situation for laughs. The comedic film satirizes the scare of nuclear war.
Alfred Hitchcock introduced suspenseful masterpieces and twists. This was a first for viewers and the change sparked audiences interests. Often nicknamed "The Master of Suspense", he pioneered many techniques in the suspense and psychological thriller genres. He directed movies such as Psycho, The Birds, and Rear Window.
The Mercury Project
I believe that the Mercury Program was one of the most important event we learned this week. The Space Race was a huge part of the Cold War. This kick started America's space program. Initiated in 1958, completed in 1963, Project Mercury was the United States' first man-in-space program. It was the United States objective to put a an on the moon by the end of the decade and before the Soviets.
Dr Jonas Salk
32 Campbell's Soup Cans (1962)