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The 2nd Great Awakening
Transcript of The 2nd Great Awakening
Baptism & Methodism
Experienced the most growth
From the less prosperous and less educated communities
Emphasized personal conversion rather than predestination
Democracy in church affairs
Joseph Smith translated the golden plates he received from an angel into the Book of Mormon
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints was born
Believe in salvation only through Jesus Christ
Suffered much oppression, Brigham Young led them to Utah to escape this persecution
Roots of the Awakening
In response to growing liberalism in religion during the 1800's
Roaring revivals: Started on the southern frontier and spread to the Northeast
Increased participation of women, especially the middle class
Encouraged evangelicalism that influenced American life
Famous Methodist circuit rider (traveling frontier preacher)
Helped start the Second Great Awakening
Personally converted thousands of souls
Started by William Miller, originated in the Burned-Over District
Believed October 22, 1844 would mark the return of Jesus Christ to earth
"Great Disappointment" - Jesus Christ didn't show up to his own party
Many left the religion, but many still believe he is coming at a later date
Gatherings of 25,000 people at an encampment for several days
The enthusiastic style of preaching and audience participation led many people to convert
Many religious groups were present
The public took part in:
"The noise was like the roar of Niagara.
The vast sea of human beings seemed to be agitated as if by a storm. I counted seven ministers, all preaching at one time, some on stumps, others on wagons ... Some of the people were singing, others praying, some crying for mercy. A peculiarly strange sensation came over me. My heart beat tumultuously, my knees trembled, my lips quivered, and I felt as though I must fall to the ground."
-An Excerpt from the
Autobiography of Rev. James B. Finley: Or, Pioneer Life in the West. Published in 1853
Churches had to face up to the issue of slavery
1844-45: Southern Baptists and Southern Methodists split with their northern counterparts over slavery
1857: The Northern and Southern Presbyterians went separate ways
The secession of southern churches foreshadowed that of the southern states
A first person account of the famous camp meeting at Cane Ridge, Kentucky, in 1802
Captures the spirit and activity of the revival
Impacted the several religious groups that were present: Methodists, Baptists, and Presbyterians
Evangelical ministers were able to reach their audience at an emotional level and powerfully moved large crowds.
The American Pageant - 14th Edition.
Pages 340-343, Chapter 15.
American Pageant Textbook
By Maria Bobbett and Rhea Sharma
The 2nd Great Awakening widened lines between classes and regions
Wealthier and better-educated regions of the East did not experience as much revivalism
More evangelistic fervor from less prosperous and less-educated Southern and Western regions
Therefore, areas experienced different religions and diverged
Churches split --> political parties split ---> Union splits (Civil War)
Presbyterian minister, powerful oratator
Led massive revivals
Preached a version of old-time religion, but was also an innovator
Supporter of abolitionist and women's rights social movements
The Burned-Over District of Western NY