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Transcript of The Nubians
Mr. Conrick Period 3
NOTICE: The following presentation contains copyrighted materials used under the Multimedia Guidelines and Fair Use exemptions of U.S. Copyright law. Further use is prohibited. The Nubians Culture • Adapted Egyptian cultures while maintaining cultural identity
o Pyramids-flat on top
o Figurines of slaves buried with kings to serve after death (afterlife), imitate Egyptian style • Origin of word ‘Nubia’ from "nub" = Egyptian word for gold • No written records until 8th Century BCE; adopted Egyptian characters o 3rd Century BCE, transitioned to Meroitic Social Political Interaction - “Ethiopia” : referring to the region
- “Kush”: from the name of Kas (what the ancient Nubians called their land)
- “Nubia”: known as the “source of gold” to the Egyptians, derived from the word “Nub” (GOLD) Economical Kerma
An agrarian society, limited to no foraging
Very fertile land along the Nile basin
Created stone tools
Huge amounts of domesticated animals, even before Egypt Where is Nubia now?
Nubia is at bottom of the second largest manmade lake in the world, Lake Nasser
Under 250 feet of water
Lake is a product of the Aswan Dam in Egypt Napata/Kush
Became Egypt’s main trading partner
Main trading hub for African and Mediterranean also Meroë
Trade flourished with Africa, Arabia, and India
Meroë merchants traded their iron tools and spearheads
An abundance of iron ore, gold, emeralds, copper, and ebony
Agriculture: Tropical rainfall supported rain-fed crops - Kingships were established by 1550 BC
- Buried in tombs in wealth
- Material wealth: gold, ebony, ivory The Fall of Meroe Mass amounts of trees were felled to provide for iron furnaces
Lack of trees caused soil erosion
Agriculture started to fail, crops weren’t being produced enough in quantity or quality Aksum took over African trade then eventually defeated Meroë in 250 CE Further study of Nubia is impossible: • Worshiped Amon
o built large temples to him at Meroe and Napata
o likely to have not eaten pigs for religious reasons • Women were just as important as men:
o women had vital positions on social ladder (high priestesses, governing mothers, queens & princesses (nearly 17 in power)
o some depicted as warriors
o outnumbered males • Like Egypt, depended on Nile for existence
o All land near the Nile is intensely farmed and irrigated
o In ancient times the growing of crops was possible only during the early fall, after the summer rains and after the Nile had flooded its banks
o Vegetables planted at bases of fruit trees to maximize land use • Nubian Vault
o Architectural technique http://www.earth-auroville.com/la_voute_nubienne_en.php http://www.umich.edu/~kelseydb/Exhibits/AncientNubia/JPEGs/Photos/61.7.675.jpg http://www.umich.edu/~kelseydb/Exhibits/AncientNubia/JPEGs/Photos/61.7.678.jpg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nobatia Three kingdoms of Nubia Isometric...Nubian Vault Aswan Dam ...overflowing