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Optics Unit Review Project

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Arjun Bains

on 20 February 2014

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Transcript of Optics Unit Review Project

Optics Unit Project
The Eye
It is a form of energy
It travels in straight lines
It can be reflected
It can be refracted (bent)
Law of Reflection
The angle of incidence equals
the angle of reflection on a real mirror.

For light to reach your eye through a reflecting telescope there are a few steps. First the light enters the telescope and reflects off of the primary mirror. The primary mirror is a concave mirror. The reflected light is sent to the secondary mirror which it hits and is redirected diagonally straight to the eyepiece lens and then into the eye.
Optical Technology (Laser Light)
Sources of Light
Ray Model of Light
Properties of Light
An object that can be heated to such a high temperature that it emits visible light is called an incandescent source of light. The emission of visible light by hot objects is called incandescence. Incandescent light bulbs are very cheap, use up a lot of electricity and are bad for the environment.
Incandescent Source
Fluorescent Source
A phosphor coating on the inside of a tube absorbs the ultraviolet energy and emits it as visible light. This light bulb is more expensive than an incandescent light bulb but is better for the environment and uses less electricity.
Phosphorescent Source
Light energy is absorbed by certain particles that can store this energy for a while. The stored energy is later released as visible light.
Chemiluminescent Source
A chemical reaction that produces energetic particles that gives off visible light energy.
Bioluminescent Source
Living creature that emit light through chemical reactions.
A farsighted person has eyes that are too short so the focal point of the light entering the eye is behind the retina. To correct this condition you have to wear convex lenses.
A nearsighted person has eyes that are too long so the focal point of the light entering the eye is in front of the retina. To correct this condition you have to wear concave lenses.
Concave Mirrors
Convex Mirror
Concave mirrors converge light to form a focal point. They are good at collecting light. They form images that make everything appear larger.
Convex mirrors diverge light and do not form a focal point. They are good at spreading light. They form images that appear much smaller than the object they are representing.
Concave Lenses
When light travels through concave lenses, the rays spread out . A concave lens does not form a focal point. It can produce a virtual image because you can only see the image if you look through the lens , it cannot be projected onto a screen .
Convex Lenses
When light travels through a convex lens, the rays are brought closer together. A convex lens does form a focal point. It usually produces a real image because the image can be projected on a screen.
High Density to Low Density
When light travels from a high density to a low density the refracted ray moves away from the normal.
Low Density to High Density
When light travels from a low density to a high density the refracted ray moves towards the normal.
Light refracts when it moves from one medium to another. This is caused by the change in speed of light which is due to the changing density of a substance.
Reflecting Telescope
Refracting Telescope
The first step of a refracting telescope is for the light to hit the primary lens. The light refracts through the convex lens. This turns the image into a real image until it hits the eyepiece lens. The eyepiece lens is also a convex lens and sends the image straight into your eye.
A convex lens can be used in a magnifying glass to make the image look larger and further away. Another example of convex lenses is in overhead projectors. An example of a concave lens is in a Galilean telescope, the concave lens serves as the ocular lens or eyepiece.
When the eyelid opens, it lets light in through the cornea and then to the lens where refraction occurs. The lens is focused by the ciliary muscles. The image then goes to the retina which inverts and reverses the image due to its optical properties. From there, the optic nerve sends the signal from the retina to the brain which turns the image right side up.
The calculator and the bee use the sun's energy to produce electricity or energy to fulfill their function.
When the laser is shot, the light travels in a straight line and hits the hand. When the light exits the source to the right it continues in a forward motion and doesn't turn or bend.
When the laser hits the mirror the small red dot reflects off of the glass and onto the counter directly below.
The photo on the top demonstrates the same principles when the light reflects off of the mirror at the same angle that it came into contact with.
The photo at the top shows how the pencil refracts (bends) towards the normal when it goes from a low density medium to a high density medium. Both photos show the refraction that occurs when an object moves from one medium to another.

Laser lights are released in pulses or in a continuous beams. They are powerful enough to cut through metal. Laser beams often serve as scalpels in modern surgery. Eye surgeons use lasers. Lasers can also be used to shave off areas of the cornea. Their heat can be so intense that they can instantly seal broken blood vessels as neatly as they cut through them.
Shadows are formed when light is blocked by an opaque object, meaning light cannot go through it. Since light travels in straight lines, it cannot bend about an object through which light can’t go through so this forms a shadow.
This picture shows how a bulb (the light source) gives away light but the light can’t go through the object so the light goes around it. Also the light does not bend during this process and that causes a shadow.
Pinhole Camera
When using a pinhole camera, it produces an upside down and backwards image. When the light travels from the top of the tree it travels diagonally towards the pinhole to enter the camera because light travels in straight lines it continues in that path until it hits somewhere on the bottom of the box. The same happens when the bottom of the tree projects at the top of the box.
Bigger Shadow
A bigger shadow is caused when the object is closer to the light source. This is because the light has less space to go around the object and so there is a bigger shadow since light does not hit much of the surface on which the shadow is.
Smaller Shadow
When the object is farther away from the light source, the shadow is smaller. This is because there is more space for the light to go around the object so there is lots of space for the light to hit on the surface on which the shadow is on.
Ray Diagram
A ray diagram is a picture in which straight lines with arrows are used to show the path of a beam of light
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