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Challenges in Our World Today
Transcript of Challenges in Our World Today
The Iranian Revolution: 1979
1953- USA and Britain helped Muhammad Reza Pahlavi gain control of Gov’t
Westernization and modernization (like Ataturk)
Ruled as a dictator
1970- Opposition against Shah led by exiled Ayatollah Khomeini
1979- Shah flees Iran to West
Khomeini declares Iran Islamic Republic following Islamic law (Sharia) with no separation of religion and state in Iran
Extreme hostility to the West
Gov’t requires strict adherence to Muslim religious tradition
Women lose rights
Militants seize American Embassy, hold hostages for a year
Encourages other Muslim nations to overthrow secular gov’ts
The End of Apartheid:
South Africa 1994
South Africa a European colony for 350 years
Gains independence from Britain in 1910
1948-Whites create apartheid (racial separation) to maintain control over politics and economy
Black Africans and non-whites live in certain zones
Separate trains, beaches, schools, and other facilities
Intermarriage strictly banned
Desmond Tutu convinces foreign govts and businesses to limit trade
1989- FW de Klerk elected President
1994- South Africa holds free elections
Mandela elected president
South Africans still struggle with the legacy of apartheid
Latin America: Dictatorship and Economic Exploitation
Latin America freed itself from colonial domination in the 1800s, but remained economically dependent on the industrialized West
The Great Depression led to the rise of dictators, but also encouraged economic diversification
Modernization, concentration of wealth among a small elite group
Argentina and the Perons
1943 military coup establishes a junta
By 1946 dominated by Juan Peron
Wife Eva (Evita) appeals to descamisados
1950s becomes increasingly right-wing quasi-fascist state
1955 overthrown by military, flees to Spain
1973 returns to power until death in 1974
Argentina after the Perons
Brutal military regime from 1974-1983
Purged leftists, intellectuals and dissidents
At least 30,000 “disappeared”
Government engaged in a "dirty war" against its own people
Human Rights Violations 1976- 1983
Supposedly targeted unarmed guerillas but many of the disappeared were activists, students, trade union members, journalists, and people who had uncovered evidence of government corruption
Most people disappeared in the dead of night never to be heard from again
Survivors speak of unbearable torture
Between 9,000 and 30,000 disappeared
The Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo
First vigil demanding news about the disappeared held in 1977
They continue to meet there today
They would like to see the perpetrators of these crimes brought to justice
Turmoil in the Middle East
Conflict begins with creation of Israel in 1948
1967: Six-Day War
1973 Yom Kippur War
1972: PLO assassinated Israeli athletes in Munich
1978 Jimmy Carter helps negotiate Camp David Accords: Egypt (Nasser) and Israel (Begin) reach compromise, 1st time an Arab nation does this!
Conflict continues through today
Human Rights Atrocities
Sadly the world has continued to witness genocide through the 20th century
Yugoslavia: (1990s) Slobodan Milosevic, genocide during civil war
military led govt
Israel acquires the Gaza Strip and Sinai Peninsula, West Bank, Golan Heights in 6 days
Israel repels Arab forces from taking Sinai Peninsula
ethnic cleansing-push to rid Yugoslavia of Muslims by Bosnian Serbs
Bosnia was eventually divided into two republics-one Muslim and one Serb
Hutu majority, Tutsi minority
Rwandan president's plane mysteriously explodes which led to government-sponsored Hutu troops exterminating the Tutsi minority who were blamed for president's death
roughly 850k, half the Tutsi population was killed in this civil war
In response to conflict over grazing grounds and farm land territory in western Sudan
Janjaweed, a government backed militia group of Arab tribesmen, has committed atrocities against the black African population
More than 200k have died and 2 million have been displaced
Catholic nun devoted her life to help the impoverished and homeless in India
Awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1979
Israel's first woman Prime Minister (1969-1974)
First woman Prime Minister of Great Britain (1979-1990)
"Iron Lady"-promoted free enterprise and strongly opposed communism
Challenge of Globalization
Globalization-creation of a global economy and society through improved communications, transportation and trade
With a global network of communications, free trade, and low shipping costs, natural resources and manufactured goods flow more easily across national borders which creates a truly global market
The First Gulf War
1979-Saddam Hussein seized power in Iraq
1980-Iraq attacked Iran which led to an 8 year war
1990-Iraq occupied Kuwait, fearing a disruption in the flow of oil, the US sent troops to expel the Iraqis from Kuwait
The Second Gulf War
Saddam Hussein didn't honor his agreement to permit UN inspectors to monitor Iraqi weapons programs
After 9/11, US and British leaders invaded Iraq in 2003 to identify, isolate and eliminate Iraq's WMD's.
Hussein's government quickly collapsed, yet no WMDs were ever found
Al-Qaeda and 9/11
Al-Qaeda was founded by Osama bin Laden to protest the presence of US troops in the Middle East
On Sept. 11, 2001, al-Qaeda terrorists hijacked 4 commercial aircrafts and crashed them into the World Trade Center, the Pentagon and a field in Pennsylvania
President George W. Bush and other world leaders responded by declaring "War on Terror"
War on Terror
Taliban forces had gained control of Afghanistan after the defeat of Soviet forces
They imposed strict religious beliefs
women forbidden to appear in public without faces/bodies covered
women were also denied educational and job opportunities
men were banned from trimming their beards
Taliban also allowed terrorist groups to operate within their borders
US and allies invaded Afghanistan to overthrow the Taliban and establish a democratic government
Osama bin Laden, leader of al-Qaeda was killed by US forces in a surprise attack on May 2, 2011 in Pakistan
What 2 nations helped Muhammad Reza Pahlavi gain control of Iran?
How was Iran governed under the Ayatollah?
For how long did militants hold American hostages in Iran?
When did Saddam Hussein seize power of Iraq?
Who founded and funded al-Quada?
How did President Bush and other world leaders respond to the attacks on 9/11?
Whose forces had gained control of Afghanistan after the Soviets were defeated in 1979?
Name 2 strict laws place on the Afghan people.
Explain the irony of the Second Gulf War.
For how long had South Africa been a European colony?
What year was apartheid established?
What is apartheid?
What does ANC stand for?
Name 2 violent events relating to apartheid in South Africa.
Who was the first freely elected black president of South Africa?
What event led to the rise of dictators in Latin America?
Who dominated Argentinian government by 1946?
What was the name given to the war the Argentinian government waged against its own people?
About how many desaparecidos were there believed to be?
In what year was Israel created?
What US president helps negociate the Camp David Accords between Nasser and Begin?
Who was the leader of the Khmer Rouge?
Explain how Bosnia was eventually split up.
What two tribes were at war in Rwanda?
Name 2 women that have had a tremendous impact on the world in the late 20th century.
Explain 2 pros and 2 cons of globalization.
What American company is a perfect example of globalization?
What is the new revolution the world is dealing with?
Is it a fad or the biggest shift since the Industrial Revolution? Explain.
Gulf Wars/War on Terror
Chemical pollution of air, water, soil
The most polluted sites are located in Azerbaijan, China, India, Peru, Russia, Ukraine, and Zambia
The Great Smog of 1952 in London, killed at least 4,000
Radioactive contamination, can remain lethally radioactive for hundreds of thousands of years.
Lead to raised productivity and increase in the production of material goods
Increased use of oil
Renewable energy sources
New Energy Technologies
High-yielding varieties of seeds
Use of fertilizers and irrigation
Reduced possibility of famine
Technology taken to other places
chemically and genetically enhanced forms of agriculture
produced food for the earth’s growing population
The Green Revolution
The theory of relativity
The Big Bang theory
New Scientific Paradigms
High speed rail
Communication and Transportation
Over-consumption/excessive or unnecessary use of resources
Non-equitable distribution of resources
Slash and burn agricultural practices, currently occurring in many developing countries
Technological and industrial development
Deforestation - Erosion
Mining for oil and minerals
Exhaustion of Resources
Temperature increase caused by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases
These result from human activities such as the burning of fossil fuel and deforestation
The polio vaccine
The artificial heart
• The atomic bomb
• Trench warfare
C. Improved military technology and new tactics led to increased levels of wartime casualties.
Population Explosion and the Environment
Communication/Transportation/Science/Green Revolution/Medical Innovations/Energy Tech
Population and Environment/ Population Shifts
Cambodia: (1970s) Pol Pot and the Khmer Rouge
1912- Creation of the African National Congress (ANC)
Strong opponent to apartheid
Boycotts and other peaceful protest
1960– Sharpville Massacre- Police kill 69, wound 180 during peaceful protest
1964- Nelson Mandela (ANC leader) jailed for 27 years
1976-Soweto Uprising, riots spread through black townships