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Mixed Methods Research

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Chris Hamilton

on 26 January 2016

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Transcript of Mixed Methods Research

is a procedure for collecting, analyzing, and "mixing" both qualitative and quantitative methods in a single study or a series of studies to understand a research problem (Creswell & Plano, 2011).
Mixed Methods Research
The Convergent Parallel Design
Types of Mixed Methods Designs
Key Characteristics
Potential Ethical Issues
The Steps

An advanced methods procedure that provides a better understanding of the research problem and question than either method by itself.

Time-consuming, requiring extensive data collection and analysis, and the researcher may need to participate in a research team when using it
Consists of...


Of the two "strands."
Qualitative Data
When do you use it?
You seek to build on the strengths of both quantitative and qualitative data.

One type of research is not enough.
"Very powerful mixture" (Creswell, 2012, p. 535)
Develop "a complex" picture of social phenomenon (Green & Caracelli, 1997, p. 7)
Follow up a quantitative study with a qualitative one to obtain more detailed, specific information that can be gained from the results of statistical tests.

Alternative perspective in a study.
Book Example:

Policymaker wants both the "numbers" and the "stories" about an issue.
For studies in graduate programs where qualitative research has yet to be accepted and in which quantitative approaches are the norm.
The Explanatory Sequential Design
The Exploratory Sequential Design
The Embedded Design
The Transformative Design
Multiphase Design
1) What priority does the researcher give to the quantitative and qualitative data collection?

2) What is the sequence of collecting the quantitative and qualitative data?

3) How does the researcher actually analyze the data?

4) Where in the study does the researcher "mix" the data?
Once a study has been identified as a mixed methods, now we need to determine the type of mixed methods design!
Quantitative Data Collection and analysis
Qualitative Data Collection and analysis
Compare or relate
Convergent Parallel Design
The Purpose of this design is to simultaneously collect both quantitative and qualitative data, merge the data, and use the results to understand a research problem (Creswell, 2012, p. 540)

One data collection form supplies strengths to offset the weaknesses of the other

More complete understanding of a research problem results

Equal priority to both QUAN and QUAL

Researcher collects both QUAN and QUAL data concurrently during the study

Researcher compares the results (side by side) to determine if the two databases yield similar or dissimilar results (support or contradict).
Explanatory Sequential Design
Quantitative Data Collection and Analysis
Qualitative Data Collection and Analysis
Follow Up With
Consists of first collecting quantitative data and then collecting qualitative data to help explain or elaborate on the quantitative results (Creswell, 2012. p. 542).

Priority to QUAN data collection and analysis

Uses qual to refine the results from the QUAN data (p. 543)
Exploratory Sequential Design
Qualitative Data Collection and Analysis
Quantitative Data Collection and Analysis
Builds to
Involves the procedure of first gathering QUAL data to explore a phenomenon, and then collecting quan data to explain relationships found in the qualitative data (Creswell, 2012, p. 543).

Priority to QUAL data collection and analysis

Typically in two phases:
PHASE 1: QUAL (e.g., interviews, observations)
PHASE 2: quan (e.g., a survey)

Uses quan to build on QUAL findings
to collect QUAN and QUAL data simultaneously or sequentially, but to have ONE form of data play a supportive role to the other (Creswell, 2012, p. 544).

Researcher gives priority to the major form of data collection (e.g., often QUAN) and secondary status to the supportive form (e.g., often qual) of data collection (p. 545).

Secondary form used to augment or provide additional sources of information not provided by the primary source.
Embedded Design
Quantitative (or Qualitative) Design

QUAN (or QUAL) Data Collection and Analysis
quan (or qual)
Data Collection and Analysis (before, during, or after)
Transformative Framework
Transformative Design
Follow up with
Quantitative Data Collection and Analysis
Qualitative Data Collection and Analysis
to use one of the four designs (convergent, explanatory, exploratory, or embedded), but to encase the design within a transformative framework or lens (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2011).

More complex than the four previous designs
Intent of the framework is to address a social issue for a marginalized or underrepresented population and engage in research that brings about change.

Typical Frameworks: feminist, racial, ethnic, disability, and gay or lesbian perspectives.
Multiphase Design
Study 1:
Study 2:
Study 3:
Overall Program Objective
The groups of phases or studies are considered to be a mixed methods design and the intent of the design is to address a set of incremental research questions that all advance one programmatic research objective (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2011).
Strength: utilizes multiple projects to best understand an overall program objective

Challenges: forming research teams, making sure that phases or studies link together, have all studies provide insight into an overall project objective
uses either convergent, explanatory, exploratory, or embedded design in multiple phases or projects in the study.

Researchers need to clearly identify projects or phases that help address a larger program objective.

Need to be familiar in large-scale research.

need to interrelate the different phases or projects so that they tie together to address a common research objective
1. Provide a rationale for the design

2. Include collecting quantitative and qualitative data

3. Consider priority

4. Consider sequence

5. Match the data analysis to a design

6. Diagram the procedures
Obtain permissions
Protect anonymity of respondents
Not disrupting sites
Communicating the purposes for the study
Avoiding deceptive practices
Respect vulnerable populations
Potential power issues in data collection
Respecting cultures
Not disclosing sensitive information
Sample sizes
1. Feasible?

2. Identify a rationale

3. Data collection strategy

4. Develop QUAN, QUAL, and MM questions

5. Collect QUAN and QUAL data

6. Analyze data separately, concurrently, or both

7. Write the report as a 1, 2 or multiple-phase study
Describes MM as best for study

Incorporates both QUAL and QUAN

Mixes data sets

‘Rigorous’ QUAN and ‘persuasive’ QUAL in collection and analysis

Utilizes one of the MM designs

Diagram of procedures (timing, priority, and mixing within the study)

Signals to the reader that the study is MM in purpose statement or methods sections
introduced the multi-trait, multi-method approach, stimulating interest in employing multiple methods in a single study” (pg. 536).
• 1973
integrated the research techniques within one study

• 1979
merged findings through multiple methods
Argument whether worldviews and methods were compatible

For example
: does quantitative methods have the same worldview as qualitative methods?

Early 1990s
it was found that there is some overlap in ‘worldviews’ and mixed methods eventually became accepted as a distinct design.
Salehi and Golafshani (2010) discuss that researchers are finding this movement to be a new opportunity to study complex phenomenon. They say that although there are challenges, the mixed method approach ‘has emerged as a viable alternative to purely quantitative or qualitative research’ (pg. 190).
Creswell, J. (2012). Educational Research: Planning, Conducting,
and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc.

Johnson, R., & Onwuegbuzie, A. (2004). Mixed Methods
Research: A Research Paradigm Whose Time Has Come. Educational Researcher, 33(7), 14-26.

Onwuegbuzie, A., Frels, R., Leech, N., & Collins, K. (2011). A
mixed research study of pedagogical approaches and student learning in doctoral-level mixed research courses. Educational Researcher, 5(2), 169-199.

Salehi, K. G. (2010). Using mixed methods in research studies:
An opportunity with its challenges. International Journal of Multiple Research Approaches, 4, 186-191.
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