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Aims of Argument / Eng 1302
Transcript of Aims of Argument / Eng 1302
A text and reader
suggests conflict and heated debate
The perception of argument as verbal combat should not overshadow the positive role of reasoned argument in conducting human affairs.
A reason is a sentence telling why the claim should be accepted as true.
logos, ethos, pathos,
Everything Bad is Good for You
playing video games
Everything Bad is Good for You
by Steven Johnson
Claim: Video games are good for you.
Reason: Video games force players to weigh evidence, analyze situations, and quickly make correct decisions.
real-life arguments need an audience; arguments are intended to influence other's beliefs, opinions and behavior
the art of effective persuasion
the art of responsible reasoning
is one who can distinguish good arguments from bad ones--whether or not he or she agrees with the argument or not
the textbook will use the term
to distinguish those that show responsible reasoning from those that show poor, or careless, reasoning
Four concepts of responsible reasoning
self-critical and open to constructive criticism from others
argue with their audiences or readers in mind
know their arguments' contexts
Responsible Reasoning is Well Informed
the more we know about most topics, the harder it is to be
inclined to lay down principles as incontrovertibly true:
he gives his opinion without trying to be dogmatic
We find ourselves changing or at least refining our opinions more or less continuously as we gain more knowledge and learn from well-argued opposing viewpoints.
Responsible Reasoning is Open to Constructive Criticism from Others
popular argumentation and responsible reasoning are alike
being open to well-intended criticism boils down to this: the ability to change our minds when good reasons to do so are presented
changing one's mind is a sign of intelligence and responsible reasoning
Responsible Reasoning Considers the Audience
we have to respect the opposition--see them as the audience for our arguments
adapting to the audience
is the biggest challenge of argument
Responsible Reasoning Understands an Argument's Context
"enter the conversation" Mike Rose
All arguments are part of an ongoing conversation
Knowing the past, present, and future of arguments on an issue helps ensure that we are making arguments on issues that matter and will continue to matter.
newspapers, talk shows, political speeches, class discussions, lunch-table debates, campus forums
"Fighting words: Why our public discourse must change" Kelby Carlson, pg. 10
What are the
Arguing to Inquire
helps us to form opinions, question opinion we already have, and reason our way through conflicts or contradictions
dialogue, serious conversation
Arguing to Convince
the goal of inquire is to reach some kind of conclusion on an issue
conviction = "an earned opinion, achieved through careful thought, research, and discussion"
Persuasion attempts to influence not just thinking but also behavior.
Persuasion appeals to reader's emotions
Photos / Poetry / Patterns
helps roommates live together
helps families decide on everything
requires sound logic
clear presentation of positions of reasons