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Aims of Argument / Eng 1302

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Marscha Brown

on 17 October 2015

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Transcript of Aims of Argument / Eng 1302

Aims of Argument / Eng 1302
A text and reader

suggests conflict and heated debate
The perception of argument as verbal combat should not overshadow the positive role of reasoned argument in conducting human affairs.

What is
reasoned thinking
a claim:
A reason is a sentence telling why the claim should be accepted as true.
logos, ethos, pathos,
Everything Bad is Good for You
learning through
playing video games

Everything Bad is Good for You
by Steven Johnson
Claim: Video games are good for you.
Reason: Video games force players to weigh evidence, analyze situations, and quickly make correct decisions.
real-life arguments need an audience; arguments are intended to influence other's beliefs, opinions and behavior
the art of effective persuasion
the art of responsible reasoning
arguing responsibly
intelligent person
is one who can distinguish good arguments from bad ones--whether or not he or she agrees with the argument or not
the textbook will use the term
responsible argument
to distinguish those that show responsible reasoning from those that show poor, or careless, reasoning
Four concepts of responsible reasoning

self-critical and open to constructive criticism from others
argue with their audiences or readers in mind
know their arguments' contexts
Responsible Reasoning is Well Informed
the more we know about most topics, the harder it is to be
dogmatic =
inclined to lay down principles as incontrovertibly true:
he gives his opinion without trying to be dogmatic

We find ourselves changing or at least refining our opinions more or less continuously as we gain more knowledge and learn from well-argued opposing viewpoints.
Responsible Reasoning is Open to Constructive Criticism from Others

popular argumentation and responsible reasoning are alike

being open to well-intended criticism boils down to this: the ability to change our minds when good reasons to do so are presented

changing one's mind is a sign of intelligence and responsible reasoning
Responsible Reasoning Considers the Audience
we have to respect the opposition--see them as the audience for our arguments

adapting to the audience
is the biggest challenge of argument
Responsible Reasoning Understands an Argument's Context
"enter the conversation" Mike Rose

All arguments are part of an ongoing conversation

Knowing the past, present, and future of arguments on an issue helps ensure that we are making arguments on issues that matter and will continue to matter.

newspapers, talk shows, political speeches, class discussions, lunch-table debates, campus forums
"Fighting words: Why our public discourse must change" Kelby Carlson, pg. 10
What are the

Arguing to Inquire
helps us to form opinions, question opinion we already have, and reason our way through conflicts or contradictions
Greeks -
dialogue, serious conversation
Arguing to Convince
the goal of inquire is to reach some kind of conclusion on an issue

conviction = "an earned opinion, achieved through careful thought, research, and discussion"
Arguing to
Persuasion attempts to influence not just thinking but also behavior.

Persuasion appeals to reader's emotions

Photos / Poetry / Patterns
Arguing to

helps roommates live together
helps families decide on everything
requires sound logic
clear presentation of positions of reasons
pg. 6
Full transcript