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Music Therapy

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Kirstin Kinder

on 11 December 2013

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Transcript of Music Therapy

Music Therapy
Stress Relief for Nursing Students
Collin Valis
Kelly Reedy
Kirstin Kinder
Lisa Auclair
Esther Anyaorah
By:
NEGATIVE
weight change
sleep
system
immune
EFFECTS
Music Therapy
"Music therapy, to me, is performance without the ego." -Jodi Picoult
deprivation
anxiety
fatigue
depression
Clinical and evidence based
Used as treatment for:
pain
stress
anxiety
depression
Complementary and alternative therapy that affects:
physical
psychological
cognitive
social
"I often think in music.
I live my daydreams
in music.
I see my life
in terms of music.”
-Albert Einstein
History
Mankind and Music
Originated in Ancient Greece
Philosophers Plato, Aristoteles, and Pythagoras discovered and used music as therapy.
Based on experimental observation and rational thought.
"Music penetrates the body, mind, and soul."
Native Americans and Africans used singing as part of the healing process.
Music & healing once went hand-in-hand
Chinese character for "medicine"
includes the character for "music."
Western Medicine
Music therapy treatment declined in favor of scientific research.

Rediscovered in 20th century, when it was found that music helped injured war veterans heal faster.
King George of England
a normal adaptive response to a lack of homeostatic equilibrium
P
h
y
s
i
o
l
o
g
y

of

S
t
r
e
s
s
Two major categories of hormones form the human stress response:
 Catecholamines
 Glucocorticoids (GCs)
Catecholamines
"Fight or Flight"

Epinephrine and norepipnephrine (aka adrenaline and noradrenaline)

Increase in oxygen and glucose supply to the brain and skeletal muscles

Designed to maximize the body's efficiency to survive an acute emergency
 Glucocorticoids
Cortisol
Delayed, long-lasting
Functions to aide in recovery from primary stressor and to prepare for potential subsequent stress
Five main effects on body:
Increases blood glucose
Alters behavior
Slows growth
Inhibits reproduction
Modulates immune system
Neurochemistry
Cortisol initially increases higher-order cognitive and behavioral responses

Over a prolonged period of time, elevated levels of cortisol act as a neurotoxin
Music Therapy
Decreases cortisol levels

Repairs the respiratory, cardiovascular, and motor function altered by cortisol

Reduces stress, protects against disease, and decreases pain
Physiology
of
Music
Psychology
“Music expresses that which cannot be put into words and that which cannot remain silent”
Victor Hugo

Stress
Effects
on
Cognitive
Learning
Nursing students experience a wide variety of emotions
Stress can come from multiple sources
Releases stress hormones
Cognitive learning abilities are affected by stress.
Memory
Recall
Acute and chronic effects of stress
Stress Effects
Emotional Self-Regulation
A process by which individuals influence what emotions they have, when they have them and how they experience and express these emotions.

Self-regulation is a complex process of
self-directed change
Music Therapy

Emotional Self-Regulation
Music Therapy
for Emotional Self-Regulation
Enhances emotional regulation
Intentionally modifies stress levels
According to Healthline News, new research shows that listening to music can lift your mood and can ultimately lead to a greater quality of life.
Variations
in
Music
Responses to Music
Body automatically synchronizes with the tempo
Affects neurological functioning
Pleasant music
Decreases startle eye reflex
Releases dopamine and serotonin
Unpleasant music
Increases startle eye reflex
Decreases dopamine and serotonin
Physical Responses to Music
Factors Influencing Music Preference
Music is highly personal
Culture influences how we perceive music
Nurses need to take culture into consideration
Familiarity and past experiences have a positive effect
Significant correlations were found between the degree of relaxation and musical preference
Types of Music
Slow music (ex. Classical, Smooth Jazz, R&B)
Decreases norepinephrine
Increases Endorphin levels
Decrease Cortisol (stress hormone)
Relaxing music is thought to exert a hypnotic effect
Tempo at or below a resting heart rate (<80 beats per minute)
Predictable dynamics
Fluid melodic movement
Pleasing harmonies
Regular rhythm without sudden changes
Tonal qualities that include strings, flute, piano or specially synthesized tones.
Music can move us along the ‘stress continuum’
Soothing Music
Stimulating Music
Fast and High Amplitude music (ex. Heavy Metal, Techno)
Increase norepinephrine
Decreases Endorphin levels
Increase Cortisol
Resting heart rate >80 bpm
Upbeat music can produce a stimulating effect
High amplitude
Quick tempo
Dynamic
Irregular rhythm
“One good thing about music,
when it hits you feel no pain.”
-Bob Marley
Music
Therapy
Effects on Nursing Students
• Slowed heart rate, decreased blood pressure
• Improvement in sleep
• Decreased stress/anxiety
Future Applications:
Teaching Tool
Career
References
A healthy lifestyle strategy [Illustration]. (2011, February 22). Retrieved from
http://gregparham.wordpress.com/2011/02/22/paleo-running-part-imotivation/
Central nervous system [Illustration]. (2001). Retrieved from http://
www.pennmedicine.org/health_info/body_guide/reftext/html/nerv_sys_fin.html
Chanda, M. L., & Levitin, D. (2013). The neurochemistry of music. Trends in Cognitive
Sciences, 17(4), 179-191.
Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis [Illustration]. (2005, April 18). Retrieved from
https://www.stanford.edu/group/hopes/cgi-bin/wordpress/?p=3543
Performance Style Research. (n.d.). Research Center. Retrieved December 2, 2013,
from http://research.culturalequity.org/home-psr.jsp
Romero, L. M., & Butler, L. K. (2007). Endocrinology of stress. International Journal of
Comparative Psychology, (20), 89-95.
Using music to tune the heart. Music therapy, or just listening to music, can be good
for the heart. (2009). Harvard Heart Letter: From Harvard Medical School, 20(3), 4-5.
Yehuda, N. (2011). Music and Stress. Journal Of Adult Development, 18(2), 85-94.
Slow music (ex. Classical, Smooth Jazz, R&B)
Decreases norepinephrine
Increases Endorphin levels
Decrease Cortisol (stress hormone)
Relaxing music is thought to exert a hypnotic effect
Tempo at or below a resting heart rate (<80 beats per minute)
Predictable dynamics
Fluid melodic movement
Pleasing harmonies
Regular rhythm without sudden changes
Tonal qualities that include strings, flute, piano or specially synthesized tones.
Music can move us along the ‘stress continuum’
Soothing Music
Stimulating Music
Fast and High Amplitude music (ex. Heavy Metal, Techno)
Increase norepinephrine
Decreases Endorphin levels
Increase Cortisol
Resting heart rate >80 bpm
Upbeat music can produce a stimulating effect
High amplitude
Quick tempo
Dynamic
Irregular rhythm
Daily Stressors
Academic
Clinical
Social
Financial
decreased
Full transcript