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Writing the Research Paper

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Chris Jobling

on 4 February 2016

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Transcript of Writing the Research Paper

Writing the Research Paper
How to write your paper
Writing the paper
Checklist
References
The Template
Barrass, Robert. Scientists Must Write: A Guide to Better Writing for Scientists, Engineers and Students. 2nd edition. London: Routledge, 2002. https://ifind.swan.ac.uk/discover/Record/446965
Ashby, Mike. How to Write a Paper. 6th Edition. Cambridge: Engineering Department, University of Cambridge, 2005. URL: http://bit.ly/12ciIqO.
Planning your Paper
Analyze your audience
Allocate your time
Prepare a Topic Outline
Design your message
Communicate your purpose
Obtain feedback
The Parts of the Paper
The Title
The Abstract
The Introduction
The Materials and Methods (or Procedure)
The Results
The Discussion
The Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References
Appendices
EG-353 Research Project
SR-311 Research Dissertation

Your Supervisor
. Probably familiar with the topic
The Second Marker/Reviewer.

Not so familiar with the topic.
Industrial Sponsors
. "What's in it for my company
?
"
Future readers.
Members of research centres and students with access to proceedings. May be carrying on where you left off.
Draft paper
: due 18th March.
Review and feedback on draft
: after Easter break
Full paper in camera ready format
: 29th April.
Add Research Centre!
add research centre!
Why?
What?
Who?
How?
Introduction
Why did you do the work?
What is the problem?
How did yo
u
become aware of the problem?
Why is it of interest to the readers of this paper?
Make concise notes as you think about the topics to be included in your paper. Readers will expect information to be
relevant,

well organized
, and
clearly presented
.
Remember the paper is limited to ten pages.
Materials and Methods
how did you obtain the information included in the paper?
Results
What did you find?
Discussion
What do you make of your results?
How do your findings relate to previous work?
Conclusions
What do you conclude?
Abstract
What, in a few sentences, are the main points of your paper?
Acknowledgments
W
ho contributed ideas, information, illustrations?
Who financed the work?
References
How can I obtain a copy of each of the sources cited in this paper?
Standard Headings
Title
Abstract
Introduction
(Theory)
Materials and Methods
Procedure and results
Discussion
Conclusions
(Recommendations)
(Acknowledgments)
References
(Appendices)
Widely accepted section headings help you to plan your work
Make an Outline!
List relevant facts and ideas below appropriate headings

as you decide:
what each paragraph should be about?
what needs more emphasis?
what can be left out?
Use of your word processor's outlining facility can make this process simple. E.g. see http://bit.ly/WwywR0
Everything you include should be relevant.
Ask yourself:
is this relevant?
is this necessary?
Numbering sections of
your paper
Follow the guidelines given in the template.
Use the correct document styles!
Title goes into table of contents for the research centre proceedings.
Choice of a good title is very important if you want your paper to be read!
Give your title a lot of thought.
Doesn't have to match the project title!
Should be complete, interesting and informative without reference to the rest of the report.
Must include a clear statement of the problem, your main findings
,
conclusions and recommendations.
May be all that is read by some readers!
Write last when rest of report is complete.
The introduction will probably be where many of the works cited will be introduced.
Write for the general reader.
State the purpose and scope of the work
Include a clear statement of the problem
Give the context by relating your work to the work of others
Mention any new approaches, limitations, and assumptions
Write draft first but revise when rest of paper is complete.
Tell the reader what you did and how you did it.
Content here depends on nature of the project.
See references for guidelines.
A factual statement of your findings, supported by statistics, tables, graphs, or other diagrams, as appropriate. You do not normally include all data, rather summarize the results in a graph. (Detail should be in your log book.) Present the data in an order that makes the explanation simple: this will not necessarily be in the order the results were obtained!
Consider the results presented, with appropriate reference to any problem raised in the introduction, to any hypothesis tested, and to the work of others.
Refer to any theoretical background, any limitations in your approach, possible sources of error in your measurements.
Claim no more than can be substantiated by the results presented.
As you are comparing your work with the work of others, there are likely to be cited sources in this section.
Your conclusions should follow on from the discussion and be consistent with the arguments and evidence presented in the paper. This is not the place to introduce new topics!
Conclusions should produce an effective ending to the paper.
You do not need to repeat the introduction here.
Conclusions should be concise, unambiguous and clear.
Recommendations
Should be practicable and should arise from your conclusions.
Advise on what should be done next, when it should be done and by whom.
Could well form the basis for one of next year's projects.
List any staff, aside from your supervisor, who have provided help. If there has been support from industry, that would be noted here. If you have been sponsored, you would normally note that here too. Moral support from family, partners, friends can also be given if it has helped you.
Relevant previous work can be be noted in the
Introduction,

Methods
and
Discussion
sections
but not normally anywhere else. The references should contain all works cited in the body of the paper and they should be complete. Use EndNoteWeb and the citing tools provided by Word. Use Vancouver (Swansea) style. Read and follow the guidelines provided by the Library. See the examples in the template.
Details that would be out of place in the main body of the paper but which may be required by some readers, for example tables of original data, may be included but only if strictly necessary.

Appendices will be included in the page count.
The Assessment
What are we looking for?
Your ability to define the problem to be investigated, or to state the purpose of the work, if the project is your own. (Plan, Introduction in Research Paper, Presentation, Defence)
Your ability to plan the project, make precise measurements and prepare accurate records. (Progress, Logbook, Meetings with supervisor, Method in Research Paper.)
Your ability to evaluate published work, your own personal work, to analyze numerical data (as appropriate), argue logically and draw valid conclusions. (Research paper, presentation, defence.)
You ability to relate your findings to knowledge of the work of others. (Research paper.)
The thoroughness with which you tacked the work in relation to the time available. (Supervisor's assessment with evidence provided by log book.)
Your ability to select relevant material and reject what is irrelevant. (Research paper.)
Use outline to decide on the content
Prepare first draft manuscript without template
Create any illustrations needed
Ensure references are complete
When paper is ready in draft form, copy text into template.
Use styles to ensure formatting is correct (refer to the template)
Submit draft for review
Use the feedback to refine the content for final draft.
Notes:
Given the timing, the draft paper may not have all results or discussion in place. This is acceptable providing that you clearly state that this is the case and tell the reviewer what he/she will expect to see in the final paper.
Title, author details, literature review, method, some preliminary results and discussion and preliminary conclusions however should be present. The references should be complete.
Your supervisor is not your proof reader!
Is the research paper suitable for publication in the proceedings of the research centre?
Do you recommend the paper for publication a) as is b) after revision?
Is the work original: has any part of it been published before? (we'll check this with TurnitIn)
Is the work complete? Is it a contribution to the subject?
Are there any errors, or faults of logic?
Are there any ambiguities? Are any parts badly expressed? Are any parts superfluous? Are any parts over- or under-emphasized? Is more explanation needed?
Does the typescript conform to the style guidelines as defined in the template?
Should all parts of the paper be published?
Is the title clear, concise and effective?
Are the keywords appropriate?
Is the abstract comprehensive and concise?
Are the methods appropriate? Are they described clearly and concisely?
Are the tables and figures properly prepared and correctly captioned.
Are the conclusions supported by evidence?
Are all the references cited? Are any of the references cited unnecessary?
A checklist for reviewers (and authors)
Links
Library Support for Engineers (on Blackboard)
Library Support for Sports Scientists (on Blackboard)
Avoiding Plagiarism (Cardiff University): bit.ly/XSuhfW.
Writing research papers - an online guide: http://bit.ly/XSv54t.
iFind search for "writing scientific papers": http://bit.ly/XSvggh.
Google search "Writing engineering research papers" http://bit.ly/TfV0Gj
Google scholar search "writing engineering research papers": http://bit.ly/11m6TcS
Academic Success Sessions
Classes to amplify on some of these issues
All welcome. From W/C 22nd February.
Full transcript