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Abuse and Neglect: A Cultural Perspective
Transcript of Abuse and Neglect: A Cultural Perspective
there are reasonable and probable grounds to believe that the
survival, security or development of the child is endangered
because of any of the following:
(a) the child has been abandoned or lost;
(c) the child is neglected by the guardian;
(d) the child has been or there is substantial risk that the child
will be physically injured or sexually abused by the
guardian of the child;
(f) the child has been emotionally injured by the guardian of
the child. What is Culture? "Culture is a set of beliefs, attitudes, values, and standards of behaviour that are passed from one generation to the next" (Abney, as cited in Aronson Fontes, 2005, p. 4) (Afghan, Indian, East African, First Nations) First Nations A modified timeline of abuse and neglect among the First Nations people... Pre-European Abuse and Neglect was uncommon under traditional ways of child rearing
children were in the center of Aboriginal Societies
child rearing included extended family
If a child misbehaved, they were given to a relative as discipline. European Arrival From 1860-1980's, Aborginal children were forcefully taken from families and put into Residential schools.
Children from 5-15 taken for ten months (Sept.-June)
Oppression of culture and language, death, disease, and maltreatment occurred. "The impacts of residential schools on First Nations communities were profound with the disruption of child-caring knowledge and the institutionalization of a pedagogy that dismissed the ability of First Nations adults to care for their children" (RCAP, as cited in Blackstock, Trocme, and Bennett, 2004, p. 3) Go get your willow! Some forms of physical abuse were adopted after Europeans arrived.
Parents forgot how to parent. Sixties Scoop Poverty, inadequate child welfare services, multi-generational grief, and loss of parenting led to bus loads of children being removed from reserves to non-Aboriginal homes.
Apprehensions were often done under questionable circumstances. Parents nor the community was made aware of when or if an apprehension would take place. The most significant reason for apprehension was neglect.
By the 1970's Aboriginal children in care were 44% in Alberta, 51% in Saskatchewan, and 60% in Manitoba! Present Day child maltreatment investigations was four times higher in Aboriginal child investigations than non-Aboriginal child investigations (49.69 per 1,000 Aboriginal children versus 11.85 per 1,000 non-Aboriginal children). (Public Health Agency of Canada, 2008, p.39)
A disproportionate number of children and youth still live in poverty, are involved in the youth criminal justice systems, face malnutritions, disabilities, drug and alchohol abuse, and suicide.
East Africa Child -Raising Norms -Children are cared for by the collective community
-Children were allowed to attend family and neighborhood events that occur late at night
-Children were expected to entertain themselves in close proximity to adult
-The extended family members contribute in raising the children. Physical discipline and Abuse 1) Female Genital Mutilation
•Video clip of female genitals mutilation in
*Some of the Disadvantages associated with the procedure
•Irreversible lifelong health risk
•No health benefits related to this procedure
•It’s associated with high death rate due to infection and other related health risk.
•The girls are highly vulnerable to getting Aids/HIV infection South Asia (India) In February 2011 The Times of India reported that every 2.5 hours a child below 16 years of age and every 13 hours a child below 10 years of age is raped in India, making it the country with the highest number of cases of child sexual abuse of any country.
In India, parents are often reluctant to admit child abuse and sexual abuse of children involving family members is almost always hushed up due to fear of:
What the community might think
Fear of other family members.
Indian culture: Abuse in South Asian Immigrant families in Canada: Common Themes:
Women who have been abused by their spouses fear to seek the necessary help because of:
Jeopardizing their immigration status
Lack of knowledge of the Canadian Criminal Justice System
Fear of authorities and lack of trust, especially the police
Cultural values regarding marital problems
Might believe in karma and accept the abuse Stressor's that result in Domestic Violence:
Family obligations Physical discipline and abuse Child marriage
child sexual abuse
Child recruitment by armed force It is the second poorest country in the world.
-Population: 29.8 million
-Pop. ages 0-14: 32 %
-Life expectancy: 44 years
-Under-5 mortality rate: 199 % Agencies within Edmonton that
supports Immigrants 1.Changing together-A center for Immigrant women association
2.Multicultural health broker co-operation
3.Edmonton immigrant services association
4.catholic social services
5.Edmonton multicultural coalition Risk Factors
ØChild Labor: 20% of children are expected to work in order to provide for themselves and for their family
ØViolence and Exploitation: About 1,500 incidents are recorded each year
ØChild marriages: Young girls are given in marriage before 18years old.
ØWomen are considered as sexual objects Afghanistan
The world's concern for child abuse!
**A report published by Unicef identifies Afghanistan as the “worst place to be born
in the world”: Afghan children are subjected
to extreme poverty and violence on a daily basis. ** Afghan's in Canada War:
Ø Child soldiers: Under the Taliban Regime
Ø Orphaned children
Inadequate political system
ØJuvenile justice: No alternative prisons for young offenders.
ØRight to identity: Only 6% of births are recorded. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-16783354 AFGHANISTAN CULTURE The UN Secretary General's Study on Violence against Children has given the following overview of the situation of abuse and violence against children across the globe.
In the Global School-Based Student Health Survey carried out in a wide range of developing countries, between 20% and 65% of school going children reported having been verbally or physically bullied in school in the previous 30 days. Similar rates of bullying have been found in industrialized countries. An estimated 150 million girls and 73 million boys under 18 have experienced forced sexual intercourse or other forms of sexual violence involving physical contact.
UNICEF estimates that in sub-Saharan Africa, Egypt and Sudan, 3 million girls and women are subjected to Female Genita Mutilationon every year.
International Labor Organization estimates that 218 million children were involved in child labor in 2004, of whom 126 million were engaged in hazardous work. Estimates from 2000 suggest that 5.7 million were in forced or bonded labor, 1.8 million in prostitution and pornography and 1.2 million were victims of trafficking.
Only 2.4% of the world's children are legally protected from corporal punishment in all settings. The End!