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Chapter 3 Migration

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Jacq Pan

on 7 May 2013

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Transcript of Chapter 3 Migration

Migration Chapter 3 Key Concepts Why Do People Migrate?
Where Do Migrants Go?
Why Do Migrants Face Obstacles?
Why Do Migrants Move Within a Country? Key Terms Why Do People Migrate? Where Do Migrants Go? Why Do Migrants Face Obstacles? Push Factor: Something that induces people to leave their current residence
Oppressive Government, Few jobs Pull Factor: Something that draws people to a new residence
Better schools, Work opportunities Refugees: People who are forced to migrate from their home and cannot return
Race, religion, nationality, alliance with groups, or political opinion Floodplain: An area subject to flooding during a number of years according to historical trends
Land around bodies of water Intervening Obstacle: An environmental or cultural feature of the landscape that hinders migration
Mountains, Rivers International Migration: Permanent movement from one country to another
From Mexico to Canada Internal Migration: Permanent movement within the same country
Florida to Illinois Interregional Migration: Permanent movement from one region of a country to another
Midwest to South East Intraregional Migration: Permanent movement within a region
Indianapolis to Chicago Reasons Distance Migrants Key Terms Voluntary Migration: Permanent movement undertaken by choice
Moving for a Bigger House Forced Migration: Permanent movement compelled usually by cultural factors
Refugees Migration Transition: Change in the migration pattern in a society that results from industrialization, population growth, and other social and economic changes that also produce the demographic transition
Created by Wilbur Zelinsky Global Migration Patterns U.S. Immigration Patterns Impact Key Terms Unauthorized (Undocumented) Immigrants: People who enter a country without the proper documentation Chain Migration: The migration of people to a specific location because members of the same nationality previously migrated there Immigration Policies Cultural Challenges Key Terms Quotas: Laws that place maximum limits on the number of people who can immigrate to a country each year Brain Drain: Large-scale emigration by talented people Guest Workers: Workers who migrate to the more developed countries in search of higher-paying jobs Why Do Migrants Move Within a Country? Migration Between Regions Migration Within a Region Key Terms Counterurbanization: Net Migration from urban to rural areas in more developed countries Push and Pull Factors Economic People emigrate from areas with little job opportunities and to areas with more available jobs
The US and Canada are major destinations
"Streets Paved With Gold" Cultural Slavery causes forced emigration
Refugees emigrate because of political instability: They have no stable home until a country allows then in or they can safely return to their country
Democracy pulls many people in Environmental Hazards push people away : Natural Disasters
Attractive landscapes draw people in Intervening Obstacles Natural landmarks used to be the main problem
The creation of new technology created a new means of transportation making it easier to migrate
Promoted globalization Internal Migration People are less likely to move far distances
Much more numerous than international migrants
Easier transition: no/little culture shock
Recently from urban to rural International Wilbur Zelinsky : Migration Transition Stage 1: High CBR and CDR and low NIR
Daily or seasonal mobility in search of food
Stage 2: Rapidly declining CDR and high NIR
International and interregional migration
Migration to cities for factory jobs
Stage 3 and 4: Rapidly declining CBR and moderating NIR
Destinations of international migrants
Interregional from cities to suburbs (Similar to Demographic Transition) Gender Males tend to migrate longer distances than females (mainly because people tend to move for work)
However, recently more females have been appearing Ravenstein's Laws Most long-distance migrants are single, adult males Ravenstein's Laws Most migrants relocate a short distance and remain within the same country
Migrants that go to other countries head for major centers of economic activity Ravenstein's Laws Most people migrate for economic reasons
Cultural and environmental factors also induce migration Family Status Single adults seeking work
Not settled families or elderly retired people Net Migration Asia, Latin America, and Africa have a net out-migration
North America, Europe, and Oceania have a net in-migration
Latin Americans tend to only migrate to North America while Asians tend to migrate to all LDCs and MDCs People from LDCs tend to move to MDCs
People migrate from places with few jobs with low pay and lots of workers to places with higher pay and less workers Three Main Eras of Immigration Initial Settlement of Colonies Mid 19th Century and Early 20th Century 1970's to Today English or African Slaves Mainly European Asian and Latin American Migrants There are more foreign born residents in the US than in any other country (40 million in 2010)
Majority of inhabitants are descendants of immigrants Europeans The English immigrated during the 18th century and other Europeans followed in the 19th century
Europeans brought their cultural ways along with them and influenced the life styles in the US Unauthorized Immigrants More people are allowed into the US than ever before but still not everyone who wants to immigrate can
About 11.9 million unauthorized immigrants in the US
Most are people who are seeking work Quota Laws Unrestricted immigration to US ended in 1921 when the Quota Act was passed
Established maximum limits on number of people being allowed into the country
For every country that had citizens in the US, 2% of their population could immigrate to the US
Designed to guarantee that most immigrants were European
Most people admitted have family already living in the US
Does not apply to refugees Temporary Work Migration Guest workers in Europe, Middle East, and Asia
Provides fairly cheep labor and willingness to do normally unwanted jobs US Attitudes Towards Immigrants In the early 20th century, many people felt that the frontier was closed so immigration should be as well
People from places other than Western and Northern Europe face less acceptance and more challenges Attitudes Towards Guest Workers Many guest workers have to live in poor conditions in Europe
They don't have a lot of money for fancy living or time for a social life
The recession has reduced the number of guest workers because of high unemployment and limited job opportunities Migration Between US Regions Colonial Settlement Population centered around Chesapeake Bay Early Interior Settlements Transportation advancements helped to push the population inward
Low land prices also influenced movement Migration to California Population center shifted all the way across to Indiana by late 1800's
The California Gold Rush began in 1840 Settlement of Great Plains The center of the population remained in Indiana
While many people were moving west, just as many people were still immigrating to the Eastern coast Migration Between Regions in Other Countries Russia Interregional migration helped to develop the Soviet Union
Factory jobs were required to be near the raw materials so people migrated towards the new factories Brazil In 1960, the government moved its capital from Rio to Brasilia to help attract people to the interior Indonesia The government paid for the migration of people from the overpopulated island of Java to other less populated islands Europe People tend to migrate from the East and South to the West and North India India requires permits in order to visit different parts of the country Migration from Rural to Urban Areas Began in the 1800's in Europe and North America with the start of the Industrial Revolution
3/4ths of people in MDCs live in urban areas
Most people migrate to seek economic advancement Migration From Urban to Suburban Areas Most MDC migration is from Urban areas to suburbs
Many people migrate because they are drawn to the suburban lifestyle
Suburbanization causes rapid development Migration From Urban to Rural Areas Appeared in MDCs in late 20th century
Counterurbanization
People migrate for rural lifestyle Ravenstein's Laws 1) The majority of migrants only travel a short distance
2) Migrants traveling long distances go to cities
3) Migrants produce some sort of movement in the opposite direction
4) People in urban areas migrate less than in rural areas
5) Females move more often in shorter distances while males tend to migrate farther distances
6) Migration occurs in steps
7) Most migrants are grown adults
8) Large towns gain population because of migration, not NIR
9) Migration increases with economic development
10)More people migrate as industries and commerce develop
11) Migration is mainly caused by economic influences
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