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Transcript of Sikhism
Beliefs, Practices & Rituals
The word "Khalsa" means "pure", Khalsa's are Sikhs which have undergone the sacred Amrit Ceremony initiated by the 10th Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh. The Khalsa order was initially created on Baisakhi Day March 30 1699, with Guru Gobind Singh baptizing 5 Sikhs and then in turn asking the five Khalsa's to baptize him. Following this the Guru personally baptized thousands of men and women into the Khalsa order. The Khalsa baptism ceremony is undertaken as part of ones own personal spiritual evolution when the initiate is ready to fully live up to the high expectations of Guru Gobind Singh. All Sikhs are expected to be Khalsa or be working towards that objective.
Sikhism in Media
The Five K's & Baptizing
Guru Nanak Dev Ji
Born a Hindu ,in 1969, in a small village near Lahore located in Punjab, India, area of present day Pakistan
The Pandit or ''Holy Man'', who was present at his birth saw greatness in his horoscope. He said ''Many Hindus and others will worship him'' and that he would be worshipped on earth and heaven.
In his teens, Guru Nanak was unhappy with formal hinduism, especially the caste system.
He was married at the age of 19, and became the father of 2 sons. When he was 30 years old, he experienced a life changing milestone. One day, he did not return from his daily prayers. Since he was clothes were located at the local river bank, the town assumed he had drowned. 3 days later, he returned but remained silent. The next day, he broke his silence saying ''There is neither Hindus nor Muslims. So whos path should I follow? I shall follow God's path. God is neither Hindu nor Muslim, and the path which i follow is God's.''
Start of Guru Nanak's spiritual guidance
At this point he had started his journey to becoming a Guru. For Sikh's a guru is a source of spiritual guidance for ignorance to a state of enlightenment. Sikhs believe that the path to God can be revealed by the Guru. Guru Nanak was excited to share his insight with those around him.
When Guru Nanak was traveling around India and spreading the message about Sikhism his accomplish Mardana was skilled in the art of performing hymns. Since many people did not know how to read or right the best way to remember Guru Nanak's teachings we're as a song.
Guru Nanak traveled till 1521. When he finally decided to settle he settled in a place called, Kartarpur. From there he started to run a farm, and everyone who lived in the farm had to do a particular job. He also built a place of worship which provided a model for the Gurdwara. On this farm it represented the first Sikh community that Guru Nanak established.
Malik Bhaago had invited Guru Nanak to have a meal made by his staff. After the invite Nanak did refused to joy him, Nanak did not want to join Malik because he felt that the food Malik had created was not pure. Malik was very offended and asked the Guru to prove himself. So the Guru took two pieces of bread one on his left hand and one on his right hand one was from Malik Bhaago's kitchen and the other was from a hard working family known as Laalo. As the Guru pressed his hand milk dropped from course bread of Laalo's bread and blood oozed from Malik Bhaago's bread. Malik felt ashamed and feel to his feet in front of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
As the end came near Guru Nanak passed on his success to his sons, he passed it on to his sons in favour of one of his followers. He gave the next Guru the name Angad which means "part of me."
Other Important Leaders
Guru Angad Dev Ji
After Guru Nank had left the physically world Guru Angad Dev Ji was the next Guru in line. Angad was born on March 31st. Guru Angad was the founder of "Langar" that is a vegetarian meal served after prayers.
Guru Amar Das Ji
Guru Amar Das Ji was born on May 5th 1479 (A.D). Guru Amar started of as a Hindu, after listening to various hyms that Guru Nanak Dev Ji had created he was very enlightened by the hyms. Amar had created 109 hyms, he had become the third Guru.
Guru Ram Das Ji
Guru Ram Das Ji was born October 9th 1534. He was the 4th Guru after Guru Amar Das Ji, he was chosen by Amar Das Ji because of the sense of devotion he had towards the religion.
Guru Arjan Dev Ji
Guru Arjan Dev Ji was born on April 15th, 1563. He was the son of Guru Ram Das Ji. From his earliest childhood the Guru had found him to be imbued with the Name, and immersed in tranquility. After it was his time to be Guru he was then the 5th Guru.
Guru Hargobind Ji
Guru Hargobind was born on June 14th 1595. The Guru was a brilliant martial artist Guru Hargobind encouraged people to maintain physical fitness and keep their bodies ready for physical combat.
Guru Harirai Ji
Guru Harirai was born on February 26th 1630, This particular Guru didn't have any understanding of the hymns, until one day he was out of his hunt, and was embarrassed by Guru Nanak and Guru Nanak had given him knowledge about every hymn, that he kept in his heart.
Guru Harkrishan Ji
Guru Harkrishan was born on July 7th 1656. It is said that when Guru Har Rai was asked which of his two sons Ram Rai and Har Krishan would be the next guru, he said that although both of them followed the same religion and recited the same bani,there was softness in the heart of Har Krishan and Ram Rai was rough from the heart.
Guru Tegh Bahadur
Guru Tegh Bahadur was born on April. 1st 1621. Tegh Bahadur was the youngest of the five sons of Guru Hargobind, the sixth Sikh guru. His father was also amazed at how great of a leader his son is, and from there his fathers legacy was given to the son.
Guru Gobind Singh Ji
Guru Gobind was born on December 22nd, 1666. He was the last Guru out of all 10 Gurus. He was a Warrior, Poet and Philosopher. He succeeded his father Guru Tegh Bahadur as the Leader of Sikhs at the young age of nine. He contributed a lot to the Sikhism religion
The Panj Pyare
Panj Pyare means literally the five beloved.
The word panj is the Punjabi word for five. Pyara is the singular Punjabi word for beloved. Panj Pyare refers to the five beloved ones collectively. The Panj Pyare are beloved by Sikhs because the tenth Guru, Guru Gobind Singh Ji asked for volunteers ready to give their heads. Five men came forward; Bhai Daya Singh (1661 - 1708),Bhai Dharam Singh (1699 - 1708), Bhai Himmat Singh (1661 - 1705), Bhai Muhkam Singh (1663 - 1705) and lastly, Bhai Sahib Singh (1662 - 1705). They all fought the same battle along side Guru Gobind Singh and the Khalsa in Anand Pur and at the battle of Chamkaur in December 7, 1705 where they had died.
The story of Guru Gobind Singh's Sons
Guru Gobind Singh Ji was a great warrior and a spiritual leader. He had to spend most of his time fighting against the oppression and suppression committed by the unjust forces. He had four sons the eldest son's name was Baba Ajit Singh Ji, the second one was Baba Jujhar Singh Ji, the third son's name was Baba Zorawar Singh Ji, and the youngest of them all Baba Fateh Singh Ji.
Baba Ajit Singh
Baba Ajit Singh was born on January 26th 1687. He was raised as a very religions person. He was taught various things such as; riding, swordsmanship and archery. Baba Ajit Singh grew up to be a strong intelligent young man. He had followed his fathers foot steps and had started to fight in battles. The battles he had fought we're The Ranghars of Nuh, Taragarh and Nirmohgarh,Restoring a Brahmin's wife, Chamkaur Baba Ajit Singhs finally battle. Baba Ajit Singhs first battle The Ranghars of Nuh was the battle that he was a test, to see where he stands as a young fighter. In this battle Punjab was attacked by the Muslim tribe. After reaching the actually destination (Anandpur across the River Satluj) Ajit Singh Ji along with a 100 men reached the spot on 23 May 1699, punished the Ranghars and recovered the looted property. The last battle Baba Ajit Singh fought was a battle between the Khalsa led by Guru Gobind Singh Ji, against Mughal forces led by Wazir Khan. The Mughal's wanted the Anandpur's fort, but he belonged too the Sikhs. An unequal but grim battle began. The Sikhs had exhausted the meagre stock of ammunitions and arrows, hence they made sallies in batches of five each to engage the encircling host with sword and spear. Ajit Singh led one of the sallies and laid down his life fighting in the thick of the battle.
Baba Jujhar Singh
Baba Jujhar Singh was the second son of Guru Gobind Singh. He was born in March 1689 and he too got the same training as his elder brother. Like Baba Ajit Singh, he also accompanied the Guru to Chamkaur. Baba Jujhar Singh had also watched his elder brother fighting with the enemy. He saw him fall. At once he stood before his father and made the same request as his elder brother had done to permit him to go. He said that he will prove worthy of you and will die fighting with my face towards the enemy, with God and the Guru on my lips and in my heart.
Baba Zorawar Singh and Baba Fateh Singh
As Guru Gobind Singh Ji was fighting against the Mughal's, His two younger sons, Baba Zorawar Singh and Baba Fateh Singh were with there grandmother. They had slept the night at a Brahman's house. Mata Gujri had a bag with valuables, when she woke up the next day and asked the Brahman if he had seen her bag. He had taken the bag at night, but he made it seem as though he never had the bag. The Brahman turned Mata Gujri and the two boys into the police. The two boys were separated and had to face court. On reaching there, they shouted loudly in one voice, 'Waheguru Ji Ka Khalsa Waheguru JI Ki Feteh', All eyes were turned in their direction. The Nawab had told the two boys that there father and older brothers had died in the battle. The Nawab said that they should embrace Islam, and become one with them, if they refuse they will be put to death. Baba Zorawar Singh, looking at his younger brother said in a whisper, 'My brother, the time to sacrifice our lives has arrived. What do you think we should reply?. Baba Fateh Singh, who was just six years old then replied, 'Brother dear, our grandfather, Guru Teg Bahadur, parted with his head; he stoutly refused to part with his religion. We should follow his example. We have received the baptism of the spirit and the sword. We are the Guru's lions. Why should we fear death ? It is best that we should give our lives for the sake of our religion'. The boys had argued but in the end had lost and suffered death, they stood side by side and were put in a brick wall so they could die a slow painful death.
Sikhism is a monotheistic faith formed in the fifteenth century by Guru Nanak Dev Ji.
Guru Nanak Devi Ji along with the following nine Gurus were sent by God himself to deliver his message.
The Tenth Guru then compiled all the teaching of Gurus into the Holy Scripture known as the Guru Granth Sahib Ji.
Sikhism teaches equality of all people. Sikhism preaches that people of different races, religions, or sex are all equal in the eyes of God. Sikhism teaches the full equality of men and women.
In Sikhism keeping and obtaining a simple vegetarian diet is very important.
Sikhism teaches religious freedom. All people have the right to follow their own path
Sikhism emphasizes a moral and ethical life. A Sikh should represent moral responsibility and righteousness.
Sikhism rejects all forms of rituals such as idol worship, pilgrimages, fasting, and superstitions.
Sikhism teaches service to others. The primary task in life should be to help the poor and the needy.
Sikhs are supposed to be saints, scholars, and soldiers.
Three Principles of Sikhism
Guru Nanak Dev Ji taught three fundamental principles:
Kirt Karo - Work hard and honestly
Wand ke Chhako- Share what you have with the people who need it the most.
Naam Jappo - Always remember God throughout the day.
Movies and TV
Sikh (or better explained, Punjabi Media) is growing quickly in many Asian countries and North American countries. When the Punjabi media has introduced, the target area was not the largest so not alot of funds, popularity, and grow was achieved. In recent years the subject has grown to be more diverse making it easier for the public to enjoy their ancestory and leisure media alltogether.
Punjabi music has a diverse style of music, ranging from folk and Sufi to classical, and now a days modern pop and hip hop.
Folk music is often perceived as the traditional music of Punjab.The start of Punjabi Folk music was with, the dhadi genre The folk dhadi genre emphasizes stories of heroism and love stories, as exemplified by the numerous celebration of the legendary romantic tales of Hir-Ranjha and Sahiba-Mirza. Folk music is also commonly used in various life-cycle events in the Punjab region. “In almost every wedding ceremony family members, friends, and professional folk musicians perform different sets of folk songs which use themes from a great past, but communicate themes of separation, joy, fear, and hope in the present
Sufi music includes the singing of Sufi (a Muslim ascetic and mystic) poetry in several genres. (Video: Start at 4:54-6:20)
Bhangra Music and Dance
Bhangra, refers to several types of dance originating from the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent. The earliest developed of these was a folk dance conducted by Punjabis in the central northern areas of the region to celebrate the harvest, and whose general practice had ended by the Partition, 1947.
How its done?
They move with passion and relaxed muscles and use lots of energy. Sound easy? it's not.
Punjabi literature refers to literary works written in the Punjabi language particularly by peoples from the historical Punjab region of India and Pakistan including the Punjabi diaspora. The Punjabi language is written in several different scripts, of which the Shahmukhi, the Gurmukhī scripts are the most commonly used.
The oldest, yet still the most popular in Punjabi Literature, is romance and tradegy. Stories well known to the world, such as Mirza-Sahiba, Heer-Ranjha and Sohni Mahiwal.
Heer - Ranjha
Mirza - Sahiba
Practices & Rituals: The Gurdawara
A Gurdwara is a place where Sikhs from all over gather to worship. The meaning of Gurdwara is "the door of the Guru or God's home." In the Sikhism religion there is no formal priest only someone who can fully recite the scriptures, sing hymns, and perform religious rites. He or she is respected by the whole community, they have a huge impact on the Gurdwara they must do there task rightfully, and respectfully. As you enter the main hall there is no furniture besides the takht (throne). The Guru Granth Sahib is left on the takht and is to be treated with respect.
During the Worship
When the prayers are going on you may get up and leave at any time you please, men and women are sat separately. Usually the services involve kirtan, that includes many different instruments. Everyone usually joins in before they stand to say Ardas. At the end of the Ardas the reader will open the Guru Granth Sahib on to a random page and read a verse to give guidance for the day. At the end everyone is given parshad.
After the Worship
After the service is over everyone makes there way to the kitchen, and is followed by a vegetarian meal known as langer. When eating the meal everyone is seated on the floor, the seating is to emphasize that everyone in the room is equal. There is always volunteers that come out with the food. Serving others is a very important part of Sikhism, also known as Sava.
This is the anniversary of a guru's birth or death; marked by the holding of a festival. A gurpurb in Sikh tradition is a celebration of an anniversary related to the lives of the Sikh gurus Gurpurb is a compound of two words, guru, the spiritual guide, and purb meaning a festival or celebration. The birth of Guru Nanak is Gurpurb, this celebration can last to about 3 days. The main feature of this festival is the Akand Path, which is the reading of the Guru Granth Sahib for 48 hours straight. It is important to be involved throughout the ceremony as much as possible.
Baisakhi is celebrated to remember Sikhs of the saint-soldiers who were prepared to fight against injustice. It is a day devoted towards God, thanking him for the teachings of the gurus. On Baisaki the flag that is located outside of each gurdwara is changed. This celebration is celebrated all around the world. Usually a parade takes place from one gurdwara to another to celebrate Baisakhi.
Diwali is also celebrated in the Sikh religion, although it originated from Hinduism Sikh’s celebrate it because Guru Hargobind the sixth guru was imprisoned and released on Diwali.
Naming of the Child
When a child is born, there is an offering brought to the Guru Granth Sahib by the parents which contains a one-meter special cloth and some money as a donation. The person who reads from the Guru Granth Sahib called Granthi, then blesses the child.
Next, the first hymn on the top left of the page is read out loud after opening a random page in the Guru Granth Sahib. This step is known as the Hakum.
The first letter said from the reading, becomes the first letter of the name being given to the child.
For females, 'Kaur' meaning princess is added as their middle name, where as for males, 'Singh' meaning lion is added as their middle name.
Once the parents have decided the child's name, sweetened water called Amrit is poured onto the child's tongue, which is a sign of a religious duty for the guests.
In Sikhism, arranged marriage is common but also depends on the acceptance of both the bride and groom.
in the process of marriage, the groom and brides families exchange gifts, and the wedding either occurs at the brides house or the Gurdwara.
The couple sits on the floor, along with everyone else but separately in the front. Pink and Gold is a combination the bride often wears, where as the groom wears a special pink scarf
After the couple has been blessed from they both bow down to the Guru Granth Sahib and the bride receives the pink scarf that the groom was wearing by her own father.
A marriage hymn is read out loud which contains four verses, and contains the four stages of love and a married life. This process is known as 'Lavan'.
While the Guru Granth Sahib is kept on the right hand side, the groom and bride walk in clockwise motion around the Guru Granth Sahib and bows down it.
After the couple is officially married, the parents and guests present the couple with gifts and sweets, as well money as a donation to start them off financially.
- For Sikhs, death isn't the end because they will reincarnate
- During the “mourning period” (lasts up to 10 days), family members think of death as the person sleeping because they force themselves to think the person that has passed away is with God (Waheguru)
- Crying and showing sorrow is usually discouraged during the mourning period
- Cremation is always done as soon as possible when the person has passed away
- During each day of the mourning period a verse/passage would be read from the Guru Granth Sahib
The Five Ks are five Articles of Faith that Khalsa Sikhs wear at all times as commanded by the tenth Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh who so ordered it at the Vaisakhi Amrit Sanskar in 1699. The Five Ks are: Kesh (uncut long hair), a Kangha (small wooden comb), a Kara (steel or iron bracelet), a Kacchera (piece of undergarment) and a Kirpan (short dagger). The Five Ks are not just symbols, but articles of faith that collectively form the external identity and the Khalsa devotee's commitment to the Sikh rehni "Sikh way of life
Kesh (Pronounced Case)
This means uncut hair, including all body hairs. Sikh's let it grow as a sign they work for God.
A Kangha is a comb that keeps long hair tidy
Plain bracelet worn on the right wrist
A small dagger that represents self respect, and reminder to fight in the defense of truth.
Short pants, in a replacement of trousers.
Amrit Sanchar is the Sikh ceremony of baptism. A Sikh who has been baptized into the Khalsa is titled Singh (males) or Kaur (females) and commonly referred to as "Amritdhari". A Sikh can go through this as soon as they are old enough to understand the full commitment that they are making.
Step by Step process
The ceremony is to be conducted in any quiet place. In addition to the Guru Granth Sahib, the presents of six Sikhs is necessary, one Granthi to read from the holy text and five to witness it.
Washing of hair prior to the ceremony is mandatory.
Those undergoing initiation have to wear the five holy symbols, the 5 Ks. No jewellery or distinctive marks associated with any other religion should be worn. The head must be covered with a cloth.
During the ceremony, one of the witnesses have to explain the rules and obligations to Khalsa Panth
The person being baptized have to agree to all the terms.
A prayer from the Guru Granth Sahib is said, and the person is fully Amrit Shanchar
Conflicts in Sikhism
Even though, Sikhism has a lot of similarities and similar traditions to Hinduism and Islam, Sikhs argue that Sikhism does NOT branch off from those two religions, but is an independent religion of its own.
· One of Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s first teachings were “There is no Hindu, There is no Muslim”, which caused a lot of conflicts with the believers of Hinduism and Islam because they felt as if he was claiming both the religions not being a true faith, when Nanak only meant to say that we are all one and that there shouldn't be anyone considered more superior than the other.
· There were a lot of conflicts with Hindus and Muslims because The land that the Britain ruled was divided into India and Pakistan, and the Sikh's hoped the Britain would also create some land for them but they really had no say or power in that because the Sikh population was too small to protest or speak out for their rights
· Till this day, A lot of Sikhs have continued to hope for the creation of an independent nation, which they already have a name for known as “Khalistan”.
· One of the conflicts Sikhs rarely have is the use of chairs. This is a very odd thing to have a conflict over, but one person has been killed due to this matter.
· The story behind is that Sikh temples began to serve food in a more Western style a couple years back where people would eat on tables rather than on the floor. Cold weather being one of the reasons; along with younger Sikh finding the meals unattractive due to their integration into the Western culture. However, equality was still the norm in these temples as only plain furniture was used along identical chairs. Traditional ways of eating were not being followed but equality was still maintained regardless.
The symbol derives its name from the double-edged sword (also called a Khanda) which appears at the centre of the logo. This double-edged sword is a metaphor of Divine Knowledge, its sharp edges cleaving Truth from Falsehood. The right edge of the double-edged sword symbolises freedom and authority governed by moral and spiritual values. The left edge of the double-edged sword symbolises divine justice which chastises and punishes the wicked oppressors. The circle around the Khanda is the Chakar. The Chakar being a circle without a beginning or an end symbolises the perfection of God who is eternal. The Chakar is surrounded by two curved swords called Kirpans. These two swords symbolise the twin concepts of Meeri and Peeri - Temporal and Spiritual authority introduced by Guru Hargobind
"There is Only One God". The first two words in the Guru Granth Sahib & one of the cornerstones of Sikhism. They appear at the beginning of the Mul Mantra written by Guru Nanak describing the qualities of God in the Japji.
Guru Granth Sahib
The Guru Granth Sahib, is the central religious text of Sikhism, It is also known as the last and finally Guru. It is a collection of hymns (Shabad) or Baani describing the qualities of God and why one should meditate.
Nishan Sahib is the name given to the flag which is seen flying outside every Sikh Gurdwara (Temple). It is a triangular piece of ochre or saffron coloured cloth with the Khanda emblem in the middle. The flag post also has a khanda or spear on top and is usually covered with the same cloth as the flag. The use of the Nishan Sahib was first introduced by Guru Hargobind. Sikhs show great respect to their flag as it is, indeed, the symbol of the freedom of the Khalsa.
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