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Forensic Science Anthropology D. Scott
Transcript of Forensic Science Anthropology D. Scott
Forensic Anthropology - the scientific study of identifying
characteristics on the remains of an individual.
What was the Luetgert Murder?
How are bones formed?
Bones originate from cells called
They migrate toward the centers of cartilage production and deposit minerals. This is known as
This occurs in the first few weeks a fetus is alive and an outline of the skeleton will show up by 8 weeks.
are the second type of bone cell. They are specialized in dissolving bone.
Adult humans have 206 bones, but babies have as many as 450 bones.
Differences in male and female skeletal structure
The male frontal bone is low and sloping.
The female frontal bone is higher and more rounded.
The male eye orbits tend to be square or rectangular.
The female eye orbits tend to be more circular.
The male's lower jaw is more square with an angle of
about 90 degrees.
The female's lower jaw is sloped and has a much greater
angle than 90 degrees.
Bones in the skull
Coronal Suture - Closes at about age 50
Lambdoidal Suture - Begins
closing at age 21, accelerates
at age 26, and is closed at
Sagittal Suture - closes at age 32
located on top of the skull
Differences in the pelvis
Pelvic opening is more rounded in females and more heart shaped
The sub pubic angle of the female is greater than 90 degrees. The
male is less.
Differences in the thigh bones
The male femur is thicker and
joins the pelvis at a straighter
angle than the female femur.
Manner of Death
There are four classifications of death.
- caused by interruption and body
failure of body function resulting from age or
- caused by unplanned events
such as car accident or personal injury.
- purposeful intent to end one's life.
- Death of one person caused by another.
Cause and Mechanism of Death
Cause of Death is simply
the reason someone dies.
Disease, Shooting, Burning,
Mechanism of Death - the specific
change in the body that brought
about the cessation of life.
If the cause of death is shooting
then the mechanism could be loss
of blood or cessation of brain activity.
Establishing the time of death
Livor Mortis - As a body begins to decompose, blood seeps down through the tissues and settles into the lower parts of the body. The red blood cells begin to break down and spill their contents. A purplish color is visible on parts of the skin wherever the blood pools.
Lividity - pooling of blood in the body.
- Lividity first begins 2 hours after death and discoloration becomes permanent after 8 hours.
- If death occurred 2-8 hours before examination, lividity will be present but if the skin is pressed the color will disappear.
- After 8 hours, the color is permanent even when the skin is pressed.
- The ambient temperature impacts the time it takes for lividity to set in, at higher temps the rate is increased.
Rigor Mortis - temporary stiffness after death.
This stiffness occurs due to the contraction of
Begins within 2 hours after death.
Starts with the head and works its way down
The most rigid state is 12 hours after death.
Stiffness gradually disappears after 15 hours and
is almost completely gone by 36 hours.
Algor Mortis - temperature loss in a corpse.
Body temperature in a corpse is taken by
inserting a thermometer into the liver. This
is done to give standardization to the procedure.
Approximately one hour after death, the body will have cooled at a rate of 1.4 degrees Fahrenheit/hr and continues at the same rate for the first 12 hours.
After the first 12 hours, the body loses about
0.7 degrees Fahrenheit / hr until the body reaches the same temperature as the surroundings.
Excess body fat and clothing will slow heat loss.
Forensic Entomology - the study of insects and arthropods
that feed on decaying remains to aid legal investigations.
PMI or Postmortem interval is determined by collecting insects and arthropods near or on the corpse.
Men will generally have "bumpier" bones than females. This is due to the attachment sites of tendons (muscle to bone) being bigger due to more muscle mass. Also, thicker bone mass might also indicate a more massive person.
Odontology - the study of the anatomy and growth of teeth and the diseases associated with teeth and gums.
We have 20 deciduous or "baby" teeth and 32 permanent teeth.
Three types of teeth:
Molars - crushing and grinding
Canines - tearing and shredding
Incisors - cutting
- First teeth appear at about 7-12 months.
- The loss of deciduous teeth begins around age 5 or 6 and they fall out the same order they emerge.
- You get your second set of molars around the age of 12 and your third set (wisdom teeth) around the ages 17-21. After 25 years of age, accurate age estimation becomes difficult.
- "Sausage King of Chicago"
Louise "Louisa" Luetgert
- wife of Adolph, murdered on May 1, 1897
Found in Furnace:
Evidence - A ring with "LL" inscribed on it, and possibly a few tarsal bones, ribs, and part of a skull. He was arrested on May 18, 1897.
Anthropologist - George Dorsey
It takes about 14-16 days from egg to Adult depending on temperature and humidity.
First blow fly can appear as early as 30 minutes after a body is dead. They will begin to lay eggs within 24 hrs.
Egg to 1st Instar or larval stage - 1 day
1st Instar to 2nd Instar - 1 Day
2nd Instar to 3rd Instar - 1 Day
3rd Instar to Pupa - 5 days
Pupa to Adult - 6 days