Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

Proto-Indo European

No description
by

Michael Anderline

on 21 March 2014

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Proto-Indo European

Proto-Indo European
Latin
Galician
Italian
Portuguese
Catalan
Romansh
Romanian
Provençial
French
Spanish
Osco-Umbian
Ancient Greek
Modern Greek
Gaulish
Manx
Irish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
Cornish
Breton
Welsh
West Germanic
East Germanic
North Germanic
Gothic
Old Norse
Old English
Low German
Low Saxon/ Low Franconian
High German
Dutch
E. Frisian
Flemish
N.&W. Frisian
Yiddish
Scottish
English
Danish
Norwegian
Faroese
Icelandic
Italic
Germanic
Celtic
Hellenic
Goidelic
West
Brythonic
East
Romantic Languages
Date of formation: Approx. 3500 BC
Proto-Indo European (PIE) is an extinct language that has been reconstructed through the techniques of internal reconstruction and the comparative method. There is no direct evidence of PIE because it was never written, but it was the first proto-language to be considered the original language by linguists. The Kurgan hypothesis says that the language most likely originated in the Pontic steppe (which is a region of steppe land just on the northern shore of the Black Sea). The belief is that this was spoken as a uniform language before it began to split off into other languages around 3500 BC. There have been attempts to put Uralic and PIE together as having commonality but those are more controversial theories.
History
Phonology/ Morphology
Description
The first person to postulate the idea for PIE was Sir WIlliam Jones in 1786 with his book
The Sanskrit Language
where he noted the similarities between Greek, Sanskrit and Latin languages. He then suggested the these similarities might have been caused by a common root language shared between the three. Due to this, Jones is considered to the be the father of comparative linguistics and Indo-European studies. During the 18th century there was a lot of research to try and reconstruct the language through the comparative method and internal reconstruction since there is not actually written evidence for the language. However, PIE as it was first generated in the early 20th century is still considered to be an accurate description of the origin of languages even today.
There are proposed ideas as to the phonology and morphology of PIE, but there remain uncertainties due to the lack of written evidence. PIE is thought to have had a number of stops but only a few fricative consonants. The three types of voicing for the stops include voiceless, voiced, and voiced aspirated. PIE is believed to also have had resonants (/r/, /l/, /m/, /n/, /y/, /w/) which would be both vowels as well as consonants depending on if they were next to another vowel or not. Linguists agree generally that the only vowels used in PIE were mid-vowels (*e, *o, *ē, *ō); however, some argue the existence of an *a that could appear independently even though the vowel can appear when next to a laryngeal consonant.
Ancient Greek originated on the Balkan Peninsula and was the international language of trade for many years as the Greek nation expanded its reign in the 5th through 4th century BC. Because of the nation's prominence and wealth a great deal of information can be found on this ancient language. Many of the great ancient historians, philosophers, mathematicians, and playwrights communicated in Ancient Greek. The most famous of these include Homer, Aristotle, Socrates, and Pythagoras.


History
Phonology/ Morphology
Description
There was a large number of changes in phonology throughout the history of Koine Greek. It essentially the time frame where ancient greek transformed into modern greek. The most significant changes were the loss of vowel distinction, movement from pitch accent system to a stress accent system, and the monophthongization of several diphthongs ( i.e αι became a single vowel ε).

The morphology remained similar to that of Proto-Indo-European in that nouns had three genders (male female, neuter) and 3 numbers (singular, dual, plural), while verbs had three voices (active, middle, and passive) and four moods (indicative, imperative, subjunctive, and optative).
Date of formation: Approx. 300 BC
Modern Greek, also known as Neo-Hellenic or colloquially as Romaic, is defined as the dialects and varieties of Greek spoken in the modern era. The beginning of the Modern Greek Language is often assigned to the fall of the Byzantine Empire around 1450 AD, but many features of Modern Greek were developed in the centuries following the Ancient Greek language. Modern Greek existed in the 19th and 20th centuries primarily in a situation of diglossia, where multiple dialects are learned and spoken depending on the situation. Some of these dialects are mutually comprehensible, while others were not.


History
Phonology/ Morphology
Description
The radical changes made in the Koine period of Ancient Greek created a system of 5 vowels for Modern Greek, as well as creating voiced and voiceless fricatives. It has also not preserved length distinction, which was common in Ancient Greek.

The morphology of Modern Greek made several changes from that of Ancient Greek. These changes include the loss of the optative mood, the dual number, and all participles other than the past participle. An auxiliary verb form was introduced, and there was a great simplification of grammatical prefixes like augmentation and reduplication.
Date of formation: Approx. 1200 AD
The Gaulish Language is an extinct Celtic language that was spoken in parts of western Europe. It existed between the 6th century BC and 6th Century AD. Gaulish did not have its own alphabet, but rather borrowed the alphabet of the Ancient Greeks. Interestingly, there is evidence of a trilingual system existing in the 1st century BC, combining both Gaulish and Latin in speech and Greek in writing.

History
Phonology/ Morphology
Description
The phonology of Gaulish vowels is similar to that of English. There were 5 vowels with both short and long variations, along with numerous diphthongs. All of the diphthongs transformed through the history of Gaulish, first to short diphthongs and then to long vowels.

The morphology of Gaulish is similar to that of Latin grammar, but not interchangeable. Gaulish had nominative, vocative, accusative, genitive, and dative cases much like those of Latin. However Gaulish also had an instrumental case and a locative case, whereas Latin had an ablative case.
Date of formation: Approx. 600 AD
Manx is a language that is native to the Isle of Man, an island located between Great Britain and Ireland. It is closely related to both Irish and Scottish Gaelic, but not mutually intelligible with either. It was originally settled by native Irish speakers, but evolved into its own language in the 13th century.
History
Phonology/ Morphology
Description
The consonant phonemes of Manx have several unique characteristics. For example, voiceless plosives are pronounced with aspiration, and the dental and velar plosives (/t̪ d̪ tʲ dʲ kʲ/) are in many cases affricated to [t̪͡θ d̪͡ð t͡ʃ d͡ʒ kʲ͡ç]. The stress of words typically fell on the first syllable, but in certain cases was attached to a long vowel in the second syllable.

Manx nouns had two genders, masculine or feminine. Nouns were inflected for numbering, and Manx verbs generally formed their finite forms by using one or more free morphemes. The Manx language also had initial consonant mutations, which is when the initial consonant is altered according to its syntactical environment.
Irish Gaelic, commonly referred to as simply Irish, originated in Ireland and subsequently spoken historically by the Irish people. It is the original language of the Goidelic family of languages, eventually evolving into both Manx and Scottish Gaelic as native Irish speakers moved to the Isle of Man and Scotland. The language lost ground due to occupation by the United Kingdom, but has been steadily regaining its original number of speakers.
History
Phonology/ Morphology
Description
The pronunciation of Irish Gaelic closely resembles that of Scottish Gaelic and Manx. It is notable that consonants come in pairs, one "broad" (tongue pulled toward soft palate) and one "slender" (tongue pushed toward the hard palate). However, these broad-slender pairs are not unique to irish and can be found in other languages like Russian

Irish Gaelic is an inflected language and has three main cases: common, vocative, and genitive. In certain dialects a dative form can be found, but is largely rejected. Irish Gaelic also uses prepositional pronouns that are essentially conjugated pronouns.
For example:
Tá leabhar
agam
. "I have a book."
Tá leabhar
agat
. "You have a book."
Scottish Gaelic is a descendent of Irish Gaelic, whose speakers settled Scotland in about the 4th century AD. However, Scottish Gaelic did not develop as an independent language until after the 12th century. It is not an official language anywhere in the world, but is classified as an indigenous language.There is also a dialect of Scottish known as Canadian Gaelic that exists in Canada, with around 2,500 speakers.
History
Phonology/ Morphology
Description
Scottish Gaelic has lost the distinction in voice for its series of stops. The distinction is realized purely as aspirated vs. non-aspirated. With vowels there is a distinction in the area between closed and open vowels, i.e. /e:/ # /ɛ:/ and /o:/ # /ɔ/.

Scottish Gaelic has two genders, masculine and feminine, but also contains a short list of words with gender neutrality, or neuter. These words often show a degree of gender confusion, behaving as a masculine in one case but feminine in another.

Cornish is one of the original languages in Great Britain, having come from a split in the Common Brittonic language that was spoken throughout south Britain during the Roman occupation. It is a recognized minority language in the United Kingdom, and although it became extinct in the 19th century it has since been revived by linguistics through a variety of ancient texts.
History
Phonology/ Morphology
Description
There are no dialectical differences among Cornish speakers regarding consonants, with a few exceptions. For example, The letter r is usually pronounced with an alveolar approximant, but between vowels it is sometimes pronounced with an alveolar flap.

Cornish, like most Indo-European languages, has plurals, articles and inflections. However, it differs in the fact that it uses inflected prepositions and initial consonant mutations, much like many other Celtic languages.
Upon formation, Breton was the language of the upper class in Brittany, France. However, it became the language of the commoners after the 12th century when nobility adopted french.
Its use has been declining since persecution began during French Revolution, and is now classified as a language in danger of extinction. Numerous attempts have been made to revitalize the language, but the vast majority of 15-19 year-olds in the area do not speak Breton.
History
Phonology/ Morphology
Description
Vowels in Brenton can be either short or long, with all unstressed vowels being short. They can also be nasalized, which is noted either by adding an 'n' letter after the base vowel or adding a combining tilde over a vowel. Brenton contains two diphthongs, /ai/ and /ei/. Brenton, like most Celtic languages, uses inflected prepositions and initial consonant mutations.
Welsh is another language that evolved from the split of Common Brittonic in the 6th century. It is the official language in Wales, a part of mainland Great Britain and the United Kingdom. It has been continuously spoken throughout recorded history, but much like its sister languages its use has been declining. However, out of the languages that evolved from Common Brittonic Welsh is has the most speakers today. It is still spoken by 19% of the population, and can be read on many public signs and roadways. Interestingly, Welsh is also a recognized minority language in Argentina.
History
Phonology/ Morphology
Description
Welsh phonology contains numerous sounds that do not occur in English and are rare in European languages. These include voiceless lateral fricatives and voiceless nasal stops. Stress normally falls on the penultimate syllable, while the final unstressed syllable receives a higher pitch than the stressed syllable.

The morphology of Welsh also has many characteristics unfamiliar to English speakers. Verbs inflect for person, tense, and mood with affirmative, interrogative, and negative conjugations of certain verbs. There is a distinction between colloquial Welsh and literary Welsh, the former being used for speech and informal writing while the latter is closer to the Welsh used in the 16th century translation of the Bible.
Date of formation: Approx. 1200 AD
Date of formation: Approx. 500 AD
Date of formation: Approx. 1400 AD
Date of formation: Approx. 800 AD
Date of formation: Approx. 800 AD
Date of formation: Approx. 700 AD
History
Phonology/ Morphology
Description
History
Phonology/ Morphology
Description
Unlike German, Dutch has for the most part abandoned its grammatical case system, and while it still has three genders, the distinction between them is less important than in German. Phonologically, because Dutch did not go through the Germanic Consonant Shift, its syllable structure allows for somewhat complex consonant clusters. Additionally, Dutch has retained the use of velar ficatives, which have been lost in many other Germanic languages.
History
Phonology/ Morphology
Description
History
Phonology/ Morphology
Description
Phonology/ Morphology
Description
History
Phonology/ Morphology
Description
History
Phonology/ Morphology
Description
History
Phonology/ Morphology
Description
Phonology/ Morphology
Description
Dutch is the main language of most of the Netherlands, as well as more than half of both Belgium and Suriname. It is also prevalent on several Caribbean Islands as a result of settling. Dutch is often considered to be between English and German. The language came into being around 500 AD when Old Fankish was split by the 2nd Germanic Consonant Shift.
History
Phonology/ Morphology
Description
Stressed vowels are long when they are not followed by multiple consonants. Multiple consonants in a cluster generally indicates a short vowel. Faroese uses /a, i, u/ for inflectional endings rather than the more traditional /e/. These three are the only unstressed short vowels. Faroese also generally ignores a group of two vowels by inserting a glide between them.
Regarding grammar, Faroese is very similar to both Icelandic and Old Norse. It has three grammatical genders and four cases.

History
Phonology/ Morphology
Description
Icelandic, unlike most European languages, has a synthetic, four-case inflectional system, which uses many irregular declensions. There are three grammatical genders as well, and two declensions of strong and weak for each noun. Icelandic also allows for quirky subjects, which occur when a noun specifies that its subject is somewhere other than the nominative. Verbs are always conjugated according to tense, mood, number, voice and person.
Phonologically, Icelandic includes monophthongs and diphthongs, voiced and unvoiced sounds, but there is a catch. Generally, the consonants b, d, and g are voiceless, and the only thing to distinguish them from p, t and k is there aspiration.
History
Phonology/ Morphology
Description
Danish has a somewhat large inventory of vowels including sixteen phonemes, some of which are pharyngealized. It is a bit similar to Norwegian Bokmol in terms of writing, but differs in prosidy and in phonology. The language commonly assimilates and reduces consonants and vowels. There is also a stød, a feature of prosidy that is a form of laryngealization. This sound is often used to distinguish minimal pairs.
Verbs are conjugated according to tense, but not number or person. There are generally two genders (common and neuter), though some dialects still have three.
History
Phonology/ Morphology
Description
The Norwegian sound system is remarkably similar to that of Swedish. The retroflexes ɳ,ʈ, ɖ,ʂ, and ɭ appear only in East Norwegian dialects, which is a consequence of mixing /ɾ/ with /d/, /l/, /n/, /s/, and /t/. The Norwegian accent is partly a pitch accent with two different pitch patterns that differentiate between otherwise identical words.
Nouns in Norwegian are either inflected or declined for number and definiteness. Adjectives and determiners agree with their nouns in gender, of which there are three in Norwegian. Finite verbs are conjugated according to mood (imperative, subjunctive or indicative.
History
Phonology/ Morphology
Description
Welsh phonology contains numerous sounds that do not occur in English and are rare in European languages. These include voiceless lateral fricatives and voiceless nasal stops. Stress normally falls on the penultimate syllable, while the final unstressed syllable receives a higher pitch than the stressed syllable.

The morphology of Welsh also has many characteristics unfamiliar to English speakers. Verbs inflect for person, tense, and mood with affirmative, interrogative, and negative conjugations of certain verbs. There is a distinction between colloquial Welsh and literary Welsh, the former being used for speech and informal writing while the latter is closer to the Welsh used in the 16th century translation of the Bible.
Afrikaans
Afrikaans is native to South Africa and Namibia, and is also spoken in some parts of Botswana and Zimbabwe. It is the offspring of several Dutch dialects that were spoken by the Dutch settlers in southern Africa. Separated from the mainland, the language began to develop by itself in the 18th century. It has adopted words from Portuguese, Malay, Bantu and Khoisian, but it is largely a daughter language of Dutch. Afrikaans has the widest geographical and racial distribution of all languages in S. Africa
History
Phonology/ Morphology
Description
Most differences between Afrikaans and Dutch are morphological and grammatical than phonological. For instance, in Afrikaans there is no distinction made between the infinitive and the present tense of most verbs. Additionally, unlike Dutch, the verbs do not conjugate differently according to subject.
History
Phonology/ Morphology
Description
Ancient Greek as a whole is an ancient language that spanned 15 centuries ( 9th century BC to the 4th century AD), and includes 3 different distinct time periods: Archaic Greek, Classical Greek and Hellenistic Greek. However, Ancient Greek is primarily defined by the Hellenistic age of Greek, when multiple regional dialects combined around 300 BC. The language that existed in this age is known as both Koine (common) Greek and Biblical Greek. Although the Greek empire eventually fell to the Romans, The Greek language remained strong and eventually evolved into Modern Greek.

Flemish is a language closely related to Dutch that is spoken in Flanders, the northern part of Belgium. It consists of four distinct dialects, Brabantium, East Flemish, West Flemish, and Limbergish. West Flemish and Limbergish are sometimes considered to be separate languages. However, the dominant language in Flanders remains Dutch.
Flemish commonly uses the diphthongs au and ou, which in Dutch are both pronounced Ʌu. Additionally, the W is often realized as a β̞. Flemish also has many more loan words from French than Dutch.
Modern Greek is a contemporary language that evolved from Ancient Greek. It has approximately 12 million speakers and is native not only to the Balkan Peninsula but also to Italy, Egypt (primarily Alexandria), Turkey, and the Ukraine. Modern Greek has retained the alphabet and writing system of Ancient Greek, but many changes in phonology and morphology have occurred. There are about 13 unique dialects of Modern Greek, some of which are not easily understood by speakers of a different dialect.
West Frisian is spoken primarily in Friesland in the northern Netherlands. It has about 600,000 speakers. Old Frisian used to be spoken along the North Sea Coast, though much of this area has lost it now. It was similar to Old English and went through the Ingvaeonic shift with Old English.
Although originating in the 13th century, the Manx language was exclusively an oral society until around the 18th Century. Due to its small population size and its proximity to the much larger Great Britain, the number of speakers declined sharply throughout the 19th century and was replaced by English. The final native speaker died in 1974, but the language has been revived by linguists and descendents of native speakers. There are about one hundred speakers or Manx and half that many children learning Manx in immersion education.
Historically, Irish Gaelic predated and gave rise to both Manx and Scottish Gaelic. It has the oldest vernacular literature in western Europe, dating as far back as 4th Century AD. The British conquered Ireland in 1801, which caused a dramatic decrease in the number of speakers. By the end of British Rule Irish Gaelic was spoken by less than 15% of the national population. The numbers of Irish speakers has been steadily rising since the Republic of Ireland became a nation. the greatest number of speakers (1.7 million) is located in the Republic of Ireland, but there are also speakers located in the United States, Canada, and Australia.
West Frisian uses many long vowels. To reduce the length of speech the language uses New Frisian Breaking, which replaces a long vowel with a consonant and a vowel. They also shorten it up by reducing articles and suffixes to glottal stops. 'e', 'o' and 'ø' are common pronounced as diphthongs [eɪ], [oʊ] and [øʏ].
East Frisian is a mostly dead language, the only surviving part of which is Saterland Frisian language. It is closely related to West Frisian and is spoken mostly in Germany. Old East Frisian used to be spoken between the rivers of Lauers and Weser. Unfortunately in the 1500s the surrounding Low German Dialects almost completely eclipsed the language. There are now less than 10,000 people speaking it.
The consonant (r) is realized as (ɐ) in East Frisian.
Voiced plosives in a syllable coda are generally terminally devoiced, although not always. The language borrows significantly from Dutch and German.The language also makes common use of diminutives.
Low German is an Ingvaeonic Language spoken in Northen Germany and parts of the Netherlands. Its main ancestor is Old Saxon. Middle Low German is an ancestor of Modern Low German and was spoken from around 1100 to 1500. Various dialects of Low German are now understood by and 10 million people. It has been mostly unaffected by the high German consonant shift, leading Low German to be more similar to English.
The High German Consonant Shift affected Low German mostly only by changing 'ð' to 'd'. The language is also separated from English by the final devoicing of obstruents. Low German also has only two morphologically marked noun classes. There is no genitive case, and the accusative and dative cases have been combined. Verbs are conjugated according to number, gender and tense.
History
Phonology/ Morphology
Description
Gaulish became own language in the 6th century BC. The area originally used the Greek alphabet for private and public transactions, but memorized religious doctrines because they were not allowed to be written down. After Rome conquered the land in the 1st century BC Latin was quickly adopted by the Gaulish aristocracy to maintain their power and influence, and by 450 AD had almost completely replaced Gaulish. The language went extinct around the 6th century AD.

Scottish Gaelic evolved from Irish Gaelic in the 12th century. It remained the major language of Scotland through the 16th century due to the power of the trade empire of the Lordship of the Isles. Scottish Gaelic suffered greatly after a Scottish uprising against Great Britain in the 18th century brought persecution to the land. There are currently under 75,000 native speakers of Scottish Gaelic. Surprisingly there is a dialect of Scottish Gaelic spoken in Canada. Known as Canadian Gaelic, there are approximately 2,000 speakers.
Cornish began to separate itself from the Common Brittonic language around 800 BC when phrases became less similar to Welsh and Brenton, which are other languages produced by the split in Common Brittonic. The language eventually retreated further and further west as English became the primary language of the area. The last native Cornish speaker died in the 19th Century. However, the language was revived in the 21st century, and now there are about 500 people who claim Cornish as their primary language.
When the Breton language was formed in the 8th century it was the language of the upper class in France. However it became the language of the commoners in the 12th century when the nobility adopted French. Brenton remained strong throughout the centuries, but became a persecuted language after the French Revolution. The revolutionaries assumed that the monarchs preferred regional languages to keep the peasant masses under-informed. At the beginning of the 20th century half of lower Brittany spoke Briton, but by 1950 only 100,000 remained.
Brittany
Evolving from Common Brittonic in the 6th century, Welsh has had four distinct periods throughout its history. The original emergence period is often referred to as primitive welsh, and was followed by the Old Welsh period that spanned the 9th to 12th centuries. Middle Welsh lasted until the 14th century, and Modern Welsh is the final period of the Welsh language. About 20% of the population of Wales are Welsh speakers, which amounts to around 100,000 people.
Low Franconian is a group of languages that are commonly spoken in Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany and even South Africa. They are all Western- Germanic languages that descended from low Frankish.
The Franks spoke Old Frankish before the seventh Century around the Netherlands, Belgium, France, Germany, and Luxembourg. Over time, however, the language evolved into Low Franconian in the northern portion of the region.
Unfortunately, there is only a very small database of Low Frankish, which used to be the dominant low Franconian language. The database consists mostly of small phrases, but it from what is known it is understood that the phonology and the morphology were both quite similar to old Dutch, which later somewhat absorbed Low Frankish.
Scottish Gaelic is a Celtic language that originated in Scotland. The language still has around 50,000 speakers in Scotland today. There are also several parts of Canada (Nova Scotia, Ontario, Cape Breton Island to name a few) that have speakers of a dialect known as Canadian Gaelic
It is commonly thought that the Gaelic type of language was brought to Scotland by Irish settlers in the fourth century. Scottish Gaelic evolved from this around the twelfth century and became the dominant language of Scotland. The language took some harm in the eighteenth century due to the persecution of the Highlanders. The decline of the language is also attributed to the fact that a well-circulated translation of the Bible did not arrive until the eighteenth century
Most consonants in Gaelic have both palatal and nonpalatal companions, and there is a diverse array of trills, liquids and nasals. (b d̪ ɡ) have all lost their voicing, so the difference in words is now between [p t̪ k] and [pʰ t̪ʰ kʰ].
The Gaelic system has two genders, though there is some confusion on some words that formerly belonged to the neuter class. The language follows a strict S-V-O system for declaratives, interrogatives, imperatives and all other sentence types. There are traditionally three non-composed tenses (future, conditional, and preterite) and several composed tenses including pluperfect, future perfect, present perfect, present continuous, past continuous, and conditional perfect.
Yiddish is a high German language with a Hebrew Alphabet that was formed by the Ashkenazi Jews in the ninth Century in central Europe. It evolved out of High German around either the Danube or the Rhine, separating from German around 1500. It mainly developed by adding a Hebrew and Aramaic register and Romance words to various and more dominant Old High German dialects.
A strong Jewish culture formed in central Europe in the tenth century. Its people were called the Ashkenazi after the region of Germany known as the Ashkenaz. This culture later spread into eastern Europe. These people may have spoken Aramaic, Greek or Hebrew. The language mixed with the surrounding Germanic languages and dialects, but it remained written in traditional Hebrew. The advent of the printing press in the 16th Century helped to spread and consolidate the new language. In the 20th century, as more Yiddish-speaking people moved from the Slavic East to the West, the language removed much of its Slavic components in favor of English and Modern Hebrew components.
The various dialects of Yiddish have different phonologies, but generally it has the vowels, I, a, ʊ, ɛ, ə, and ɔ. The long /a:/ in German corresponds in Yiddish to /o/, and the German sounds /o:/ and /e:/ correspond to diphthongs /ei/ and /oi/). Yiddish lacks the German front rounded umlaut vowels /ø/ and /y/, which are replaced by /e/ and /i/ respectively.

High German includes all the German languages south of the Benrath and Uerdingen isoglosses in central and southern Germany, Austria, Liechtenstein, Switzerland, and Luxembourg and parts of Belgium. They are separated from Low German and Low Franconian by the High German Vowel Shift,
Old High German came about around 500 AD and became a popular court and poetry language around 1200. It slowly drove back the Low German variants in the Early Modern period, eventually becoming one of the key contributors to Standard German.


High German was sort of defined by its undergoing of the High German Consonant Shift. This resulted in three Germanic voiceless plosives becoming fricatives in certain phonetic environments (from Schi
pp
to Schi
ff)
. However, these plosives became affricates in other environments (from a
pp
le to a
pf
el). Additionally, the three voiced plosives became voiceless (from door to tor). Finally, /θ/ and
[ð] evolved into /d/
The political emancipation of the Dutch-speaking people of Belgium caused the language of Flemish to be formed in the County of Flanders in Northern Belgium.
Around 450 AD Old Frankish got split by going through the Second German Consonant Shift. Simultaneously the Ingvaeonic nasal spirant law ended up changing some of the Franconian languages, but not the ancestor of Dutch, Low Franconian, of which Old Dutch became a subgroup.
Afrikaans began diverging from the European Dutch variants in the 18th century. It acquired many lexical and syntactic components from the surrounding South African languages and South African English. Afrikaans was recognized as its own language in the middle of the 20th century, whereas before it was only considered a Dutch dialect. The language gained contributions from slaves of Malay, Bantu and Malagasy roots.
History
In the Middle Ages the Frisian language was spoken along the entire southern North Sea coast. It was actually remarkably similar to Old English due Ingvaeonic sound shift, which affected Frisian and English, but hardly the other West Germanic varieties at all. Both of these language also went through a suppression of German nasals. Around 1500 the language became almost only an oral language, and has lost power since then.
The region of East Frisia used to speak dominantly in East Frisian, but the language is now all but extinct and replaced by East Frisian Low Saxon. Original East Frisian survived somewhat longer in several remote places such ase the nearby islands, such as Wangerooge.
Old Low German existed from the ninth century to around the twelfth century. It was spoken on the north-west coast of Germany and Denmark. It then evolved into Middle Low German, which was spoken from around 1100 to 1500. It was the lingua franca, the trade language of the North and Baltic Sea around this time. From there it slowly evolved to contribute
Description
Osc-Umbrian (aka Sabllian) is a group of languages that derived from the Italic language family spoken originally in Southern and Central Italy. A few languages derived from them are Umbrian, Volscian, Sabine, and Paelignian. Originally the group of languages was only referred to as Oscan and Umbrian but Theodor Mommsen crafted the name Sabellic to describe other languages who were not either Oscan nor Umbrian thus creating the broad language category and its alias name.
History
This language class was originally located in Southern and Central Italy, and there are inscriptions that date the language cluster from existing between 400 and 89 BC. As Rome expanded and become more prominent, this language cluster died out as it was replaced by Latin. Consequently, a lot the Osco-Umbrian languages are given relation to Latin, they are generally their own subset of languages.
Phonology/Morphology
Most of what is known about the morphology and phonology of these languages stems from only a small collection of inscription. While they share similarities with the phonology/morphology of Latin, some differences can be seen in how the PIE aspirates (b, d, and h/g) appear between vowels in Latin whereas they all appear as f in the Sabellic languages. Also, the Sabellic languages roped together the labiovelar sounds and merged them with the labial sounds whereas Latin kept the labiovelar sounds.
Date of formation: Approx. 400 BC
Description
Latin is an ancient language in the Italic branch derived from PIE. It used the Greek alphabet and has spawned many languages that are currently spoken today (the Romance languages). Latin is used often to create new words in many languages (including English), and many English words have Latin roots embedded within them. There are a large number of writings in Latin which give us a firm idea of the language. Latin has been taught throughout history as an ability to join literate circles to partake in the reading of the
Classics
. Latin has had several phases of development each with a few new differences with morphology, syntax, and usage. These phases are Archaic, Classical, Vulgar, Medieval, Renaissance, Early Modern and Modern.
History
Archaic Latin is the first instance of Latin that originated from Roman monarchy around 75 BC. The language transformed into Classical Latin and was used by ancient Romans in their classic literature. Since the language was used by higher educated individuals, the writing style of it was very well polished since it mirrored the spoken language. As the language became more common place in society the language turned into Vulgar Latin marked by the speech of the people. Texts of Vulgar Latin are hard to come by since written Latin failed to represent the speech of the people well. Due though to the Roman empire's vast influence it had in the world due it's large scale conquest of Europe and some parts of Asia, Latin has spawned a large number of languages still spoken today indicating that Latin has had a great influence on the modern languages of today.
Phonology/Morphology
The phonology of Latin must be reconstructed, and there are a few methods of pronunciation used today while the Classical pronunciation is generally accepted. Germinate consonants are shown by using double spelling (i.e. puella = /pʊˈɛlːa/), and consonants at the end of syllables are pronounced longer (i.e. amare = /aˈmaːrɛ/). Latin also uses the /k/, /g/, /ŋ/, /l/, /n/, /t/, /kʷ/, /w/, and /ks/ phones for its consonants as well as the labial plosive and labial fricative consonants. The only Palatal sound used is the /j/ phone. The vowels used in Latin are the front close and front mid as well as the central open, back close, and back mid vowels. Classical Latin would distinguish between long and short vowels in its writing and a vowel followed by a /m/ or /n/ is nasal typically.
Date of formation: Approx. 750 BC
History
Catalan grew from Vulgar Latin is the 9th century, and it grew from the Pyrenees through Catalan counts spreading their land south and west. Written usage of the language does not arise until about the 11th century. As the Middle Ages began, Catalan experienced a high cultural status as it had a lot of influence over the Mediterranean world even causing Catalan to be the official language of Sicily for a while. As Spain began to unionize more, Spanish generally began to take over as the high status language to be used thus causing the people of the region to become bilingual. The region of Catalonia went under French control and after the French Revolution the language was banned causing Cataln to decline more, but once Spain regained control, Catalan was able to revive itself in the 19th century, and has thus maintained its status as a modern spoken language.
Phonology/Morphology
Even though Catalan pronunciation differs from dialect to dialect, some things remain universal. There are no nasal vowels and there are no diphthongs involving the short ĕ and ŏ. There are a lot of diphthongs involving the consonant sound /w/, and there are vowel contrasts in the pairs /ɛ e/ and /ɔ o/. A common trait of Catalan is its usage of monosyllabic words and its use of causing voiced obstruents to become voiceless before voiceless consonants. The vowel system of Catalan is taken from Vulgar Latin with seven phonemes that are stressed: /a/, /ɛ/, /e/, /i/, /ɔ/, /o/, and /u/. The main difference between Eastern Catalan and Western Catalan is the unstressed a and e which have become /ə/ in Eastern Catalan but remain separate in Western Catalan
Description
Catalan is a Romance language that originated in Spain particularly in the Catalonia region (northeast Spain) from which it gets its name. It is a modern language spoken by about 7.2 million people, and it is the official language of Andorra. It derived from Latin around 800 AD in the Pyrenees which are a range of mountains that form a border between France and Spain. There are few times where the language has been banned while the region was under French control, but it has since regained its legality as it was given the title of an official language in Catalonia around 1980. There are two main dialects of Catalan (Western and Eastern) which only differ in respects to their pronunciations of some words.
Date of formation: Approx. 800 AD
Description
French is an Italic language derived from Latin, and has about 75 million native speakers with approximately 338 million speakers (after including those who know it as a second language). Twenty-nine different countries have French as their official language, and it is one of the six official languages of the United Nations. Since the language spans much of the globe, there are several dialects that have spawned from French such as Louisiana French, Cambodian French, and Quebec French. French used to the be the dominant language for international interactions from the 17th century to the mid 20th century where its influence has been overtaken by the rise of English.
History
French descended from Vulgar Latin, but the language was also influenced greatly by Gaulish which was the language spoken by the Celtics who lived in the area before Roman conquest came. A lot of words in French that have Gaulish origins refer to folk life indicating the ties between the Gaulish and Latin languages. Beginning in the 3rd century, many Germanic tribes invaded the region and thus influenced the language. The most notable of these tribes was the Franks (from which the language gets its name) who altered some pronunciations and added a lot of vocabulary. French continued to develop (becoming the official language of France in 1539), and in 1636, the Académie française was created to maintain the sanctity of the French language, and it is still in place today.
Phonology/Morphology
French utilizes two genders in its languages as well as uses articles, and the language also forms new verb tenses formed from auxiliary verbs. There are 17 different vowels used in French, but they are not all common to every dialect, and in spelling, there are monosyllabic function words that drop their vowel ending if it is an a or e that comes before another word that begins a vowel. Voiced stops (/b/, /d/, and /g/) are fully voiced throughout the phone's pronunciation, and voiceless stops (/p/, /t/, and /k/) are said without aspiration. French also contains three pairs of fricatives that are emphasized by voicing.
Description
Galician is a language spoken by about 3 million people in the Galicia region which is in northwest Spain. The language is in the same language family as Portuguese, and Portuguese and Galician were both derived from the shared Galician-Portuguese language that existed from the 13th to 14th century. A majority of the words are derived from Latin, but there are a good number of words taken from Germanic and Celtic origins. Due to its similarity with Portuguese but its recognition as a distinct language has caused a schism with Portuguese culture, and the language's minor status has caused it to diminish in its influence.
Description
Italian is a Romance language spoken by over 85 million speakers today (most of whom are concentrated in Europe). It is the official language of Italy and has multiple dialects that very throughout the regions of Italy which differ by vowel openness and consonant length. Italian grammar is similar to that of most Romance languages, and it has two genders within the language. From all of the other Romance languages, Italian bears the most resemblance to their mother tongue of Latin through the vocabulary, and it distinguishes stresses. Italian is usually spoken by bilingual people who speak it as well as their other regional language.
Description
Portuguese is a Romance language and currently is the official language of several countries including Portugal, Brazil, and Mozambique. There are currently 210 million native speakers of the language making it the 7th most spoken language in the world. Portuguese is one of the fastest growing languages in Europe, and there many dialects of the language varying from country to country. The Modern Standard European Portuguese is founded on the dialect of Portuguese spoken in Lisbon, the capital of Portugal. Portuguese is closely related to other languages such as Galician, Spanish and Mirandese. Even though, these similarities exist though, the language is not immediately understood by the native speakers of the other languages. However, Brazilians have an easier time communicating with Spanish speaking Latin Americans compared with Portuguese and Spanish speaking people in Spain due to the differences in accents found in Spain.
Description
Provençal is a language spoken by a small group of people in the southern region of France in the Provence. The language is a variation of Occitan. There are only about 350,000 native speakers, and the language is native to France, Monaco, and some parts of Italy. The language has three main sub-dialects including Rodanenc, Maritim, and Niçard. Currently, there are doubts as to whether the language will continue to stay alive even though it used to be used as daily by residents of the southern region of France.
Description
Romansh is a Romance language that is currently spoken in Switzerland particularly in the southeastern portion called Grisons. Currently, there are about 60,000 first language speakers of Romansh, and in Romansh speaking regions, the language is used in the education system. The language descended from Vulgar Latin, and it has a lot of German influences within the language. There are five different dialects that very according to region including Sursilvan, Sutsilvan, Surmiran, Putèr, and Vallader. Each dialect has its own language standard for writing. The language of Romansh used to spoken in a larger region of Switzerland during the Middle Ages, but has diminished in size to the modern day area of influence it occupies.
Description
Romanian is a Romance language that is nativly spoken by about 24 million people in the regions of Romania and Moldova. The country of Romania has it as their official language as well as does the Republic of Moldova. Romanian emigration has caused the language to spread across the globe as Romanians would return to their original homelands. There are four main dialects of the language including Daco-Romanian, Aromanian, Megleno-Romanian, and Istro-Romanian; however, the Daco-Romanian is considered to be the correct standard of Romanian. The closest related Romance language is Italian
Description
Spanish is a Romance language that developed out of Castile which is in the middle region of modern day Spain. As such, Spanish is sometimes referred to as Castilian. The language has over 460 million speakers across the world, and Mandarin is the only language that beats it in terms of having the most native speakers. Due to the increase in size of economies and populations of Spanish-speaking countries, Spanish is the largest second language learned in the world. Over 20 different countries in the world have Spanish as their primary language of which a large number are in the South and Latin America region. There is a wide variety of dialects of Spanish, and the main differing dialect from traditional Spanish in Spain is that of Mexican Spanish. The dialects through are mutually intelligible and one of the main differences in loss of unstressed vowels.
History
Around the 12th century there begins to be evidence of Galician as it would integrate into Latin documents. During the 13th to 15th centuries Galician and Portuguese were closely tied together in Galician-Portuguese, and the only separating difference lied in minor dialect differences. The language grew with the culture even being written down in the form of cantigas (songs) whose documentation still exists today. The languages diverged when Portugal gained its independence from the Kingdom of Leon 1179 creating a schism of culture and thus of language. Even though Galician was prominent, Castilian Spanish subdued the amount of spoken Galician, and caused the language to change from a wide influence to a minor role. Modern Galician is an co-official language with Spanish in Galicia, and the language is even taught in schools; however, the only place where Galician is spoken more than Spanish is in the rural areas nowadays.
History
History
The Latin language came to the Portugal region around 200 BC and the presence of Roman military, merchants, and settlers spread the language through the Iberian peninsula. Between the 5th and 8th centuries, many Germanic tribes conquered the peninsula and created the Galician-Portuguese language located near the northwestern portion of the peninsula. The language began to come into its own form around the 12th century when it became integrated into written texts. As Portuguese culture became to spread its influence across the world, the language was brought to Africa as well as Southern America where it became the lingua franca in these regions for both trade as well as communication between different national political figures.
History
Provençal is a language that came from Occitan which is a Romance language. Provençal has some relation to Catalan, and the oldest written texts of the language show an origin around 960 AD where it was found in a document that merged it within Latin. The language was used to write a lot of poetry, but as French royalty expanded its power over the region, Provençal decreased in stature from the 14th century to modern day. Provençal grew from having various geographic landmarks that segregated it from the rest of the Romance languages that were developing at the same time allowing it to have isolation to flower on its own.
History
Romansh is derived from Vulgar Latin which was carried to the area after the conquest of the region by the Romans. Soldiers, merchants, and political officials came around 15 BC, and brought their language with them. With the romanization of the region around 450 BC, Latin mixed with the Celtic and Raetic languages and began to morph into Romansh. During the Middle Ages, Romansh spread over a larger area of influence, but gradually parts gave over to other languages such as German, and the German influence began to spread over the modern day Cantons region. Around the 16th century, different dialects began to emerge in the form of written text, and are evidence of Romansh managing to stay afloat even amidst German influence. When Grisons was unionized with Switzerland in 1803, caused for more interaction between Germans and the Romansh speakers of the area thus causing them to gradually speak German more and more until the language has become its current modern state.
History
Romanian descended from Vulgar Latin which came from the conquest of Rome into the surrounding areas of Italy. This initial language derived from the Vulgar Latin is called Proto-Romanian and was formed around 900 AD. The oldest text is a 1521 letter where Romanian was first observed in writing. Both Greek and some Slavic languages influenced Romanian development during the Middle Ages, and even though Moldavia, Wallachia, and Transylvania all had different accents and dialects they shared a common language and referred to it as Romanian rather than after their own individual people group's name. Beginning in 1812, the region began to experience a sense of bilingualism as Russian became the language of the elite while Romanian dropped to the language of the plebeian. In the early 1900s though there was a national movement to reinstate Romanian into the schools where it then became the official language of Romania in 1923.
History
Spanish evolved from Vulgar Latin in the Iberian Peninsula region as Latin mixed with several languages that were spoken already in the region (such as Basque, Iberian, and Celtiberian). These languages still have remnants embedded within the Spanish language. The 9th century is when the first written evidence of Spanish can be found. Many languages have had an influence on Spanish such as French, Basque, Arabic, and even some Germanic languages. Spanish had the first grammar book written down for a European language in 1492 by Elio Antonio de Nebrija. As Spain went to conquest the Americas and inhabit there, the Spanish language came with them where it flourished as Spain took heavy control of that region and enforced its culture and language on the population.
Phonology/Morphology
Galician has seven used vowel phonemes, and they mirror the same vowels used in Portuguese. These vowels used are /a/, /e/, /ɛ/, /i/, /o/, /ɔ/, and /u/, and all dialects of Galician (except for Ancarese) do not use any nasal vowels, and the only situation where a vowel is nasalized is when adjacent to a nasal consonant. The Galician language utilizes a large amount of diphthongs both rising and falling. Voiced plosives (/g/, /d/, and /b/) are weakened to fricatives unless they come after a pause of nasal consonant. A large number of Galician consonants have changed to be similar to Spanish consonants phones.
Phonology/Morphology
Italian maintains a difference between short and long consonants which is a trait taken from Latin, and it is a difference between Italian and other Romance languages. If a consonant appears between two vowels or /l r/ and /w j/, the consonant can become lengthened, but /z/ is the only consonant where this cannot occur. There is no distinction between /s/ and /z/ if before consonants or at the beginning of words. The language has a typical vowel system of seven phones including /a/, /ɛ/, /e/, /i/, /ɔ/, /o/, and /u/, and a lot of the phonology of the language is very similar to that of Vulgar Latin. Italian does not soften any consonant sound between vowels either.
Phonology/Morphology
Portuguese has similarities to Catalan and French and there are nine vowels and 19 consonant phones (but this may vary depending on the dialect). Even though it derived from Vulgar Latin, Portugal added two more vowel phones to the seven taken from Latin. Portuguese utilizes vowels to constrast stressed syllables and unstressed by raising vowels if the vowel is isolated. It is hard to classify rules for all dialects of Portuguese as it differs in each regions but some generalities are that voiced stops /b/, /d/, and /g/ are pronounced as their fricative counterparts /β/, /ð/, and /ɣ/ when they appear between vowels. In Brazillian Portuguese, the /t/ and /d/ have affricate allophones /tʃ ~ tɕ/ and /dʒ ~ dʑ/ when before /i/.
Phonology/Morphology
Provençal creates a difference between the /v/ and /b/ consonant phones, but in some dialects of it (such as Gascon) the consonants are both merged to /b/. In many dialects, the phonemes /j/ and /ʎ/ are merged into just the /j/ phone. There is also a distinction between /ɾ/ and /ʀ/ and these two phones oppose each other similarly to Portuguese. When there can be no opposition, the default phone is /ʀ/. The vowels /a/, /e/, /ɛ/, /i/, /y/, /ɔ/, and /u/ are all used within Provençal.
Phonology/Morphology
Romansh has 26 different consonant phonemes, but it is interesting to note that two of them are only contained in some dialects of the language (/ç/ and /ŋ/), and one only appears in words taken from German (/h/). Voiced obstruents are fully voiced in Romansh and any voiceless obstruents are not breathy (non-aspirated). This is important since it differs from the Swiss German language with which Romansh has had a lot of interaction with. The vowel usage varies depending on the dialect being spoken but there are some general rules. Unstressed vowels are short and stressed vowels in a closed syllable are short unless they precede an /r/.
Phonology/Morphology
Romanian has seven vowel phones /i/, /ɨ/, /u/, /e̞/, /ə/, /o̞/ and /ä/ but /ø/ and /y/ appear in some words integrated from other languages. There are twenty-two consonants phones and two diphthongs /e̯a/ and /o̯a/ in the language. There are a few differences in phonology compared with its mother tongue of Latin such as the forming of the diphthong of /e/ and /o/ to /ea/ and /oa/ when before /ă/. There is also the appearance of palatal approximant of /e/ to /ie/ when at the beginning of a word. Also, compared with Latin the velar /k/ and /g/ sounds turned to labial /p/, /b/, and /m/ phones when they appear before alveolar consonants. Romanian as changed Latin word from /l/ to /r/ when appearing between vowels.
Phonology/Morphology
Spanish contains between 17 and 19 consonant phonemes as well as five vowels phonemes /a/, /e/, /i/, /o/, and /u/. Some main features of Spanish include the usage of three nasal phonemes /m/, /n/, and /ɲ/. There are four voiceless stops /p/, /t/. and /k/ as well as an affricate /tʃ/. Spanish also contains the /r/ phoneme which can be both trilled and simply a flap consonant. Generally the /b/ sound is written as both <v> and <b> on paper. Spanish is considered to be a syllable-timed language which simply means that the syllable's of a word all have similar lengths of duration even if they differ in stress. The phoneme /ʃ/ appears sometimes in Spanish but only in words that have been taken from other languages.
Description
There are three main branches of the Germanic languages, and Western Germanic is the largest branch of those three. English is descended from this branch as well as Dutch, Afrikaans, and Yiddish. Western Germanic was found in the region between the Rhine, Alps, Elbe, and North Sea when its branch was beginning to develop. It is believed that by the 3rd century the Western Germanic languages began to diverge from the other Germanic languages and became mutually unintelligible. There is some debate as to whether or not a Proto-West-Germanic language existed or if the West, East, and North Germanic languages all directly descended from a mutual Proto-Germanic lanuages. However, some scholars such as Wolfram Euler have attempted to reconstruct a Proto-West-Germanic language, and reconstruction was published in 2013.
History
West Germanic is derived from the Proto-Germanic language which in turn descended from PIE. It was not until the 3rd century when West Germanic began to develop on its own separate from the two other Germanic language branches. During the Middle Ages is when West Germanic began to develop into three branches of languages: Old English, High German, and Low Saxon. This divergence of languages was caused by island separations between them considering the region of modern day Germany, England, and Scandinavia are all separated by bodies of water.
Phonology/Morphology
There are a few notable distinctions in the phonology of Western Germanic that separate it from the other Germanic language branches. One of the changes was take the Proto-Germanic /ɛː/ and lowering to an ā sound, and there was also a change to alter the back vowel to the front vowel associated with it (normally referred to as an umlaut). Western Germanic also began to develop the demonstrative pronoun from which the English word
this
is derived from. Finally, a lot of the /z/ phones found in Proto-Germanic changed to /r/ phones in Western Germanic
Description
East Germanic is one of the three branches of languages descended from Proto-Germanic which in turn is descended from PIE. The East Germanic languages are extinct, and there is only one language from which there is any written evidence for which is Gothic, but that is believed to have gone extinct around the 18th century. Two other languages that are presumed to be East Germanic are Vandalic and Burgundian both of which there is some evidence for through references to them in other writings from the time. The region of the East Germanic languages when they existed spanned Central Europe and even seeped into Eastern Europe.
History
Written texts by Jordanes, Procopius, and Paul the Deacon indicate that the East Germanic speaking tribes moved from Scandinavia to the region of the Elbe around 750 BC. While there is not much known about the other Eastern Germanic languages, it is known that the Gothic language was around by at least 311 AD since bishop Ulfilas was tasked to translate the Bible into Gothic. Gothic continued to exist until around the 18th century.
Phonology/Morphology
There is not much known about the general phonology and morphology of the East Germanic language, and anything known can be found in the Gothic section of this presentation.
Description
Gothic is a part of the Eastern Germanic language branch which is derived from Proto-Germanic which derived from PIE. Gothic began to become extinct by the 9th century, but it was spoken by the Goths who inhabited the southern coast of the Baltic Sea. Any known evidence for the Gothic language exists in the form of codices written by bishop Ulfilas from which the phonology, morphology and syntax of the language has been deduced. Gothic remnants can be found in languages such as Portuguese, Spanish, and French where they have taken loanwords from Gothic.
History
The Gothic language was spoken the Goths people group who came from Scandinavia across the Baltic Sea into the Central European region. There are a few documents written in Gothic that still remain today from which the language can be studied, but the language itself began to decline around the 6th century. The Gothic language began its decline of influence after the Franks conquered the Goths as well as the Goths in Italy were killed. Even though the language existed as religious language, that too ended after the Visigoths became Catholics in 589 AD. The language managed to survive though until the 9th century as a domestic language in the Iberian peninsula where it finally died out.
Phonology/Morphology
Through phonetic reconstruction the phonology of Gothic can be deduced and recreated. The /a/, /i/, and /u/ vowels can be both short or long whereas the /e:/ and /o:/ vowels are only long close-mid vowels. The language also has /ɛ/ and /ɔ/ vowels which are short open-mid vowels, and there are two diphthongs /ai/ and /au/ that appear. Gothic consonants will be devoiced if they appear at the end of a word, and there are a lot of fricative consonants in the language. Whereas in other Germanic languages the /z/ phone morphed into the /r/ sound, Gothic maintained the /z/ phone. Gothic also has three nasal consonants /n/, /m/, and /ŋ/ as well as having a difference between germinated consonants.
Description
North Germanic is one of three branches that are derived from Proto-Germanic which in turn was derived from PIE. The languages associated with North Germanic are all located in Northern Europe (such as Iceland and Scandinavia). There are about 20 million speakers today who speak a North Germanic language. Even though English is typically listed as a West Germanic language, it is sometimes said to be a part of the North Germanic group.
History
North Germanic began to become its own language around 200 AD when it diverged from its West and East Germanic siblings. It is believed that East Germanic broke off first, and as such West Germanic and North Germanic share a good deal of similarities. After the Old Norse language period, the North Germanic languages separated into an East Scandinavian, a West Scandinavian, and an Old Gutnish branch. When these branches first began to emerge, the Scandinavian languages were relatively mutually intelligible; however as time progressed the languages diverged as geography and culture segregated them.
Phonology/Morphology
North Germanic shares a good deal of phonology with West Germanic including the change from /z/ to the /r/ phone as well as the development of the demonstrative pronoun which developed into "this" used in English. Some unique characteristics though include a sharpening of the /jj/ and /ww/ sounds as well as the devoicing of stops. The language group also began to lose the /n/ phone when it appeared at the end of a word. There was also the loss of a middle /h/ sound which ended up merging with the vowel preceding it to make it longer, and the language also dropped the /j/ phone when it appeared at the beginning of a word.
Date of formation: Approx. 50 BC
Date of formation: Approx. 1100 AD
Date of formation: Approx. 900 AD
English is a language first spoken in early Medieval England. It is now the most widely spoken language in the world. It has considerable borrowings from Old Norse, Norman French, and the Romance languages. It is now considered to be the first global lingua franca. It is the dominant language of trade, science, and diplomacy.
History
English came to exist in the Anglo-Saxon territory in south-east Scotland. It was at first a culmination of the dialects of the Anglo-Saxon settlers, Viking invasions lent many Old Norse words and ways into the language around the tenth century. Norman French came into a heavy influence after the Norman Conquest in the eleventh Century, which brought the language much closer to the Romance languages of the time. Middle English then underwent the Great Vowel Shift, which evolved it into the more or less modern English we speak today.
The sound /r/ can only appear before a vowel. English tends to have many complex codas that many other languages try to avoid. /t/ and /d/ are often flapped in between vowels, and voiceless plosives such as /p/, /t/ and /k/ tend to become aspirated at the start of stressed syllables.
English, unlike most romance languages, has no gender and no adjectival agreement whatsoever. Additionally, case marking has nearly disappeared,and only appears in some pronouns.
Old English is an early form of English that was spoken mostly by the Anglo-Saxons from the Fifth to the Twelfth Century. Its grammar was mostly similar to Latin. Old English came to be largely influenced by the Norsemen who invaded them, adding many Norse properties to the language.
English, being a Germanic language, came out of the Invaeonic languages of the fifth century. Literacy in Old English came to be due to the Christianisation of the seventh Century. English was influenced by the lingua franca of the time, Latin, and many Latin-based words came in after the Norman Conquest in the eleventh Century.
Old English had many characteristics akin to German. It had no less than five grammatical cases, three grammatical genders and three grammatical numbers. Adjectives and pronouns in Old English always agreed with their antecedent in tense, number and gender.
Old English differed from Modern English in several phonological ways, due to the fact that it had not yet undergone the great Vowel Shift and several other changes. 'c' always had a /k/ sound, 'g' had a/y/ sound in certain environments, and the great Vowel Change reconfigured the pronunciations of most vowel sounds.
Date of formation: Approx. 700 AD
Icelandic is a North-Germanic language spoken in Iceland. It is part of West Nordic along with Norn, Faroese and Norwegian. There are over 320,000 speakers of Icelandic in Iceland, with some small pockets of speakers elsewhere, most notably in Manotoba. The language's earliest known existence is dated back to the twelfth Century. The language has been well-retained across time and is therefore nearly isomorphic with Old Norse
Italian descended from Latin, but its modern form did not begin to emerge until the 14th century. The language became standardized after Dante's
Commedia
was published, and educated Italians began to refer to it as the correct standard for Italian. Italian was the official language of many Italian states even before the country was unified together, and the language slowly took over Latin. This though caused several distinct dialects of Italian that vary from city to city. Italian began to be used in the legal systems of the peninsula states during the Renaissance period, and it 1582 AD the Accademia della Crusca was formed in Florence was formed to help define the Italian language. Napoleon's conquest of Italy in the early 1800s helped cause the unification of Italy and merged together the different dialects into a more unified single language.
Date of formation: Approx. 1100 AD
Date of formation: Approx. 1100 AD
Icelandic has remained more constant than most languages over time, but it did undergo a large change of vowel pronunciation from the twelfth to the sixteenth Century. However, written Icelandic has not changed significantly since the eleventh Century, excepting the addition of new vocabulary. Modern speakers of the language can somewhat understand texts that were written more than eight hundred years ago.
Faroese is an insular Nordic language, also a part of West Nordic. It is spoken by about 66,000 people, mostly on the Faroe Islands and Denmark. Faroese does not sound very close to Icelandic, but in writing the two are often mutually intelligible. The language is known to have come about sometime between the ninth and fifteenth Centuries.
The Norse people settled on the Faroe Islands and brought their Norse language with them around 900 AD. Many of these Norse settlers, though, mixed with or had long been in Ireland, and so the Irish language influenced the Norse language. After this time and for the next few language, the distinct language of Faroese evolved. The language was banned by the newly ruling Danes after the Reformation of 1513, and so it was maintained mostly through oral tradition until around the nineteenth Century.
Date of formation: Approx. 900 AD
Date of formation: Approx. 800 AD
Michael Anderline,
Brandon Buonacorsi,
Jim Mitchell

Created by
Norwegian is a North Germanic language spoken mostly in Norway. It has two written forms, Bokmal and Nynorsk. People of Norway are currently educated in both, though there are efforts to combine the two into one cohesive language. It replaced Danish as the dominant written language of Norway in the Nineteenth Century.
Norwegian evolved from Old Norse, which was spread by the Vikings across Europe. Originally it had a runic alphabet, but around the year 1030 the Christians came and introduced the Latin alphabet to the language. Around this time Norwegian began to differ and split off from Old Norse. During this time the language adopted considerable Middle Low German vocabulary.
Danish is yet another North Germanic language, this one spoken mainly in Denmark by around six million people. A large amount of Danish speakers also reside in Greenland. For the most part the language is mutually intelligible with Norwegian and Swedish, two other Nordic languages.
Swedish
Danish is descended from Old Norse, which was the common language of the people who inhabited Scandinavia during the Viking Era. Old East Norse and Old West Norse were separated partly by the change of the diphthong æi for Old West Norse into a straight e. Much of Old East Norse then became a part of English. The first Danish book was printed in 1495 AD.
Date of Origin: 12th Century
Date of origin: Fifth Century
Date of origin: Fifth Century
Date of formation: Approx. 200 AD
Date of Origin: 18th Century
Date of Origin: 9th Century
Date of Origin: 9th Century
Date of Origin: 9th Century
Date of Origin: Seventh Century
Date of Origin: 6th Century
Date of Origin: 16th Century
Date of Origin: 13th Century
Date of Origin: Mid-Fifth Century
Date of Origin: 16th Century
Date of Origin: 11th Century
Date of Origin: 9th Century
Date of Origin: 10th Century
Date of Origin: 12th Century
Old Norse was a North-Germanic language that was spoken by the inhabitants of Scandinavia and their settlements from the eighth Century until the 1300's, the Viking era. By the late fourteenth Century the language had mainly split off into the modern Germanic Languages.
Date of formation: Unknown
Old Norse descends from the Proto-Norse language which was spoken until around the Eighth Century, when it evolved into Old Norse. It was divided into three main dialects: Old East Norse, Old West Norse ad Old Gnutish, though there is no clear boundary between Old East and Old West. Old East Norse was primarily spoken in present day Sweden and Denmark, while Old West Norse was mainly in Norway. Old Gnutish was spoken in Gotland, and since it was isolated from the mainland, Old Gnutish quickly diverged and became a separate branch from the West or the East.
Date of formation: Approx. <400 AD
Date of formation: Approx. 200 AD
History
Phonology/ Morphology
Description
Swedish has nine long vowel phonemes and 9 short vowel phonemes. The shorter vowel sound [ɛ] or [æ] has morphed into an /e/ sound. In some dialects, a sequence of /r/ along with a dental consonant will result in a retroflex consonant.
Swedish nouns are declined in terms of both number and gender. There are two genders, which determines the declension of adjectives. Adjectives have two declensions, definite and indefinite. Swedish also allows for the use of third-person possessive reflexive pronouns which refer to the subject of a clause. verbs are conjugated according to tense.
Swedish is a North Germanic Language spoken by about 8.7 million people, mainly in Sweden and Finland. It is for the most part mutually intelligible with Norwegian and Danish. It is now the most popular of the North Germanic languages.
After Old Norse split into East Old Norse and West Old Norse in the ninth Century, the dialects of Sweden and Denmark also began to diverge within Old East Norse. By the thirteenth Century, Old Swedish had formed. The Christian Church introduced many Greek and Latin loan words to the language. The rise of the Hanseatic Powers in the thirteenth Century brought a heavy Middle Low German influence as well. By the sixteenth Century, most of the case markings and gender markings were reduced or lost.
Full transcript