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Coniferous Forests

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Stephanie Beto

on 6 January 2014

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Transcript of Coniferous Forests

Coniferous Forests
in Minnesota

Biotic Factors
Abiotic Factors
soil
water
air
landforms
pines
spruces
firs
larches
white-tailed deer
gray wolf
compton's tortoiseshell butterfly
wood frog
Producer: White Pine
Primary Consumer:
White-tailed Deer
Secondary Consumer:
Gray Wolf
Decomposer:
Hedgehog Mushroom
Food Web
Energy Pyramid
Symbiotic Relationships
Environmental Impact Report:
Coniferous Forests:
Description
Habitat:
Habitat:
Habitat:
100%
10%
0.1%
Producer
Primary Consumer
Secondary Consumer
White-tailed
Deer
Gray
Wolf
-Secondary consumer: living thing that consumes primary consumers
Population:
Reproduction:
Nutrition:
Sensitivity to Environmental Insults:
Human Usefulness/Attractiveness:
Symbiotic Relationship:
Population:
Reproduction:
Nutrition:
Sensitivity to Environmental Insults:
Human Usefulness:
Example of
Symbiotic Relationship:
Population:
Reproduction:
Nutrition:
Sensitivity to Environmental Insults:
Human Usefulness:
Symbiotic Relationship:
Habitat:
.
Population:
Reproduction:
Nutrition:
Sensitivity to
Environmental Insults:
Human Usefulness:
Symbiotic Relationship:
-between 900,000 and 1,000,000
-sexual reproduction
-November to early December
-usually give birth to 2 fawns (7 months later)
-heterotroph
-herbivore
-eats acorns, corn, soybeans, mushrooms, grasses, tree leaves, buds, twigs and bark, wild grapes, apples, and assorted shrubs
-parasitism between white-tailed deer and deer tick

-tick gets food without killing the deer

-deer loses blood
(can get an infection)
http://www.tickinfo.com/
http://www.flickr.com/photos/joekepieters/6308538329/
http://www.statesymbolsusa.org/Pennsylvania/Animal_White_tailed_Deer.html
http://www.statesymbolsusa.org/Pennsylvania/Animal_White_tailed_Deer.html
http://howlingforjustice.wordpress.com/category/wolf-delisting-lawsuit/
http://howlingforjustice.wordpress.com/category/wolf-delisting-lawsuit/
http://www.travelsworlds.com/color-drawing-
to-print-nature-sun-number-206420.html
-Primary consumer: living thing that consumes autotrophs or decaying matter
Hydnum repandum
-Decomposer: living thing that recycles nutrients by consuming dead or decaying matter
-Producer: organism that uses photosynthesis to produce complex organic compounds
-composed of evergreen trees (cone-bearing, needle-leaved, scale-leaved)

-common trees: pines, spruces, firs, and larches

http://webs.anokaramsey.edu/prairie/SpiritRiverNatureArea.htm
Location of MN Coniferous Forests
-able to live in most habitats except
tropical rainforests and deserts
-can live in savannas, plains, taiga, tundra, plains, steppes, and all forest habitats
-2,000
-Minnesota has largest gray wolf population in U.S.
-sexual reproduction
-January to April
-usually give birth to a litter of 7 pups (60-63 days later)
-heterotroph
-carnivore
-in MN the gray wolf's primary prey is whitetail deer

-parasitism with all herbivores it eats
-only symbiotic relationship gray wolves have
http://tree-pictures.com/pine_tree_images.html
Pine
Spruce
http://arborhilltreefarm.com/colorado-blue-spruce-tree.php
arborhilltreefarm.com/images/trees/Balsam-Fir-Large.jpg
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Larix_decidua
Fir
Larch
http://www.world-builders.org/lessons/less/biomes/conifers/conifweb.html
White Pine
-live in prairies, forests, swamps, wood lots, agricultural fields, and suburban and rural areas
Mutualism:
-both living things benefit from relationship
-mycorrhizae (a fungus) and pine trees (the fungus gets the results from the tree's photosynthesis and the tree gets recycled nutrients from the soil
Commensalism:
-one of the organisms in the relationship benefits from the relationship and the other isn't affected
-Redwinged blackbird and Torrey Pine tree (bird gets the tree's seeds as food and the tree isn't affected)
Parasitism:
-one organism benefits from the relationship and the other is harmed
-whitetail deer and deer tick (deer tick gets food and the whitetail deer loses blood)
-hide and meat can be used by humans
-fur
-help control beavers' and ungulates', large hoofed animals, population (beaver dams cause floods that do damage to human communities, and there are many traffic accidents caused by ungulates)
Description Cont.
-cool and moist
-cold winters and cool summers
-average temp: 36-41 degrees
-average annual rainfall: 18"-20"
Description Cont.
-common animals: white-tailed deer, gray wolf, boreal chickadee, wood frog, and Compton's tortoiseshell butterfly
http://www.statesymbolsusa.org/Pennsylvania/Animal_White_tailed_Deer.html
http://howlingforjustice.wordpress.com/category/wolf-delisting-lawsuit/
Gray Wolf
White-tailed Deer
http://www.stevegettle.com/pages/2009/01/16/
Boreal Chickadee
http://naturalistguy.com/2011/04/04/wood-frog-wonders-and-so-do-i/
Wood Frog
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nymphalis
Compton's Tortoiseshell Butterfly
Description Cont.
-thin deposits of till cover bedrock (because of glacial movement)

-boulders, outcrops, hills, lakes, bogs and forest land make up what we call 'up north' (where coniferous forest is)
http://www.whitepineinps.org/
http://www.whitepineinps.org/
storms and fire
-tornado/strong windstorm knocks down trees
-logs and branches dry out from sun exposure
-right conditions can start wildfire
-forest is reborn from ashes
-autotroph

-gets food through photosynthesis

-firewood

-can be cut down to boards/planks

-logs can be used by chainsaw carvers
-mutualism between mycorrhizae (a fungus) and pine trees

-the fungus gets the results from the tree's photosynthesis

-the tree gets recycled nutrients from the soil
soils it can grow in:
-moderately dry
-dry, highly acidic, infertile
-wet, swampy


-monoecious: has male and female reproductive parts on same tree

-main way for fertilization to occur: wind pollination
Male Organ
-pollen cone
-8mm long
-color: yellowish
-found in middle region of tree at base of previous year's shoots
http://nhgardensolutions.wordpress.com/tag/jumping-spider/
Female Organ
seed cones:
-0.6 to 1 cm long
-cylindrical
-located in upper region of tree

-10 to 25 cm long
-narrow and cylindrical
-color: brown
-located in upper region of tree

seeds:
-6 mm long
-'wings' are 2 cm long
-color: reddish brown

first year
second year
and so on
http://www.studyblue.com/notes/note/n/chapter-28-review/deck/6731698
Invasive Species: Night Crawler
Why?
Night crawlers are an invasive species because for the last 11,000 years Minnesota ecosystems have developed without them.
What is their job?
A night crawler has multiple jobs. It ventilates soil by creating tunnels, and it breaks down materials to create an excellent fertilizer.
What do they do in
a forest setting?
They eat the leaves that make up the duff layer, which is a layer of leaves that cover the ground and slowly decompose. This causes soil erosion, takes away ground-dwelling animals' homes, and it takes away the area where woodland flowers and plants grow.
How it Affects White Pine:
-eliminates the area where new white pine trees would grow
How it Affects White-tailed Deer:
-removes some of the plants white-tailed deer may eat
-would lessen the amount of food the ecosystem had to offer the deer
How it Affects the Gray Wolf:
its main food source's (the white-tailed deer) population would decrease, which could affect the gray wolf in two different ways:
-wolf population will decrease
-the wolves will start eating more of another animal
http://www.dnr.state.mn.us/snapshots/plants/easternwhitepine.html
-distributed commonly under conifers, sometimes under hardwoods
-fruits from mid-winter to early spring
-releases spores that grow into new fungi
-heterotroph
-gives of enzymes to break down materials and then absorbs them
-forest fires would destroy them
-edible
-often called 'sweet tooth' mushroom because of sweet and nutty flavor
-mutualism with trees in may grow on (mycorrhizal with trees)

-the mushroom helps the tree get nutrients from the soil

-the tree gives nutrients to the mushroom
-forest fires would pose a threat (would eliminate some of the deer's food source- white-tailed deer's population could then decrease)

-any lack of food or water would pose a threat to the deer
-forest fires could cause a chain reaction= would take away some of the white-tailed deer's food, decreasing the deer population, which would make it harder for the gray wolf to find food

-any lack of food or water would pose a threat
Odocoileus virginianus
Pinus strobus
Canis lupus
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydnum_repandum
How it Affects
the Hedgehog Mushroom:
-night crawler will make it harder for new trees to grow, which ends up resulting in less full grown trees for the hedgehog mushroom to live off of
What can be done?
-once in an area, they're impossible to remove
-best plan is to contain them through regulations on off road vehicles, bait disposal, and use and cleaning of equipment in logging industry
http://wormguy.50webs.com/butterworm_care.html
-population of Hedgehog mushrooms in Minnesota is unknown
("Coniferous Forest")
("Comparison- Biomes of Minnesota")
("Comparison- Biomes of Minnesota")
("Coniferous Forest Description")
("Coniferous Forest- Biomes of Minnesota")
("Coniferous Forest Description")
(All About Minnesota's Forests and Trees: A Primer)
("Comparison- Biomes of Minnesota")
(All About Minnesota's Forests and Trees: A Primer)
("Where Do They Live?")
("How Do They Reproduce?")
("How Do They Reproduce?")
("How Do They Reproduce?")
("Coniferous Forest- Biomes of Minnesota")
("Mycorrhizae")
("White-tailed Deer")
("White-tailed Deer")
("White-tailed Deer")
("White-tailed Deer")
(Painter)
("Gray Wolf")
("Gray Wolf")
("Wolf Predation on Ungulates")
("The Value of Wolves")
("Symbiotic Relationships")
("California Fungi: Hydnum Repandum")
("California Fungi: Hydnum Repandum")
("Fungi")
("Hedgehog Mushroom")
("Hedgehog Mushroom")
(Painter)
("Species Relationships")
("Mycorrhizae")
("Earthworms")
(Lajeunesse)
("Earthworms")
("Invasive Earthworms Denude Forests in U.S. Great Lakes Region")
("Gray Wolf")
("Fungi")
Full transcript