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Transcript of Colonial America
Early English Settlements
Spain vs. England
Trading Rivalries and Religious differences.
Catholic Spain vs. Protestant England
Attacks on Spanish Treasure ships by explorers like Sir Francis Drake.
Spain vs. England Continued...
Philip did not think Elizabeth was the rightful ruler of England.
Philip also wanted Drake and others punished for their acts of piracy.
Instead Elizabeth knighted Drake.
The Spanish Armada
Arguably the largest naval fleet ever assembled.
Sent by Philip to invade England and put a Catholic ruler on the English throne.
The attack was an absolute failure.
Marks the end of Spanish naval dominance.
England now able to begin colonization.
Lost Colony of Roanoke-
Sir Walter Raleigh- Established a settlement at Raleigh Island off the coast of North Carolina.
100 men initial settlers had a difficult winter & returned to England.
91 men, 17 women, and 9 children returned to the Island.
John White the settlements leader returned to England for supplies.
He was delayed in his return for 3 years due to war with Spain.
Upon returning he found the Island deserted with only the word CROATOAN carved on a tree.
White thought that Croatoan meant another Island 50 miles to the South.
Bad weather kept him from exploring and the Roanoke settlers were never seen again.
The 1st English child born in the Americas was White's grandaughter named Virginia Dare.
Charters- documents granting the right to organize settlements in area.
Virginia Company-Joint-Stock Company
Investors buy a piece of the company in return for a share of the companies future profits.
1606 the company sent 144 settlers in 3 ships.
1607 the ships sailed up the Chesapeake Bay and down a river that they named the James.
They named the river and the settlement in honor of their king, King James.
Survival credited to John Smith
Explorer that knew what it took to survive.
1609-1610- Smith returned to England. This year is called the "Starving time".
Fighting with the natives also broke out.
Way for Va. Company to make money for investors.
Relations with natives improved when John Rolfe married Chief Powhatan's daughter Pocahantas.
Va. Company gave land grants of up to 50 acres to anyone settler that could pay his way to the new world.
Colonists participated in politics.
The House of Burgesses met in 1619.
Reps from the colony's towns and could make laws for the colony.
Va. Company faces financial trouble returning very little profit.
In 1624 King James revoked their charter and established Jamestown as England's 1st Royal Colony.
Next wave of English settlers sought religious freedom not financial gains.
When King Henry the VIII broke from the Catholic Church not everyone was happy.
Catholics- Persecuted b/c they still saw the Pope as the head of the Church
Puritans- wanted to reform the Anglican Church- Thought Henry did not go far enough.
Separatists- wanted to leave and set up their own churches.
Some separatists made an arrangement with the Va. Company to come to the New World.
The deal was that they had to give a part of their profits to the company.
Called pilgrims b/c their journey was religious in nature.
Of the 102 passengers on the Mayflower only 35 were pilgrims.
The rest were crafts people in search of a better life.
They set up the Plymouth Colony.
The Mayflower Compact-
Compact- an official document.
Pledged their loyalty to England.
Civil Body Politic.
Necessary step to establishing representative government in America.
Massachusetts Bay Company-
John Winthrop- Leader and Governor
900 Men, Women, and Children to Massachusetts, Present day Boston.
Puritans came for Religious freedom./ Had little toleration of other beliefs.
This led to the creation of other colonies.
Formed b/c of lack of toleration by Winthrop and the Mass. Bay Comp. Colony.
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut-
1st written European constitution in America.
1660- England has 2 Groups of Colonies-
New England area-
Massachusetts/New Hampshire/Connecticut/Rhode Island
The land between England's 2 groups of colonies were controlled by the Netherlands.
They were known as the NEW NETHERLANDS COLONY
Main Settlement- New Amsterdam
New Amsterdam- Good Seaport= Center of trade & shipping.
Dutch Colonies cont...
Offered large estates to anyone who could bring at least 50 settlers to work the land.
Landowners ruled like kings.
Settlers owed patroons labor and a share of their crops.
England Acquires New Amsterdam-
1664 Eng. sends a fleet and seizes w/out a fight New Amsterdam.
King Charles gives the colony to his brother the Duke of YORK.
Renames the settlement to NEW YORK.
The owner or proprietor owned all the land and controlled the government.
Differed from New England-
Voters elected Governor and Legislature.
New does not have this until 1691.
New York cont....
1683- 12,000 inhabitants.
Gift from Duke of York to Lord John Berkeley & Sir George Carteret.
Proprietors of New Jersey
Named after the Island of Jersey in the English Channel where Carteret was born.
New Jersey cont....
Proprietors made very little profit and by 1702 the colony was in the possession of the King.
Colonists continued to make local laws.
Established by Quakers- "Society of Friends"
William Penn- Quaker Leader saw Pennsylvania as a "Holy Experiment"
"Inner Light"- No need for Clergy.
Pacifists- People who refuse to use force or to fight in wars.
1682-Penn supervised the building of Philadelphia.
He wrote PA. 1st constitution.
By 1683 the colony had over 3,000 inhabitants.
1701 Colonists began to elect legislature thanks to the CHARTER OF LIBERTIES.
Swedes had settled the southern part of the Pennsylvania colony.
This Charter also allowed the Swedes to form their own legislature.
B/C of this they functioned as their own Colony- DELAWARE
Sir George Calvert
Desire for Religious Freedom for Catholics.
Charles I gave Calvert the Proprietary colony north of Virginia.
Calvert's son Cecilius inherited the colony & named it Maryland.
He gave estates to English Aristocrats.
For years the Calvert and Penn families argued over the boundary between Maryland and Pennsylvania.
Border Dispute Resolution-
In the 1670's the families hired two men to settle the dispute.
Charles Mason & Jeremiah Dixon
The two mapped and defined the boundary which came to be known as the MASON DIXON LINE.
Protestants in Maryland
The Calvert Family allowed Protestants to settle in Maryland.
The Protestants began to outnumber the Catholics.
Protestants in Maryland Continued...
With new found power in numbers the Protestant Legislature made the Anglican Church the official Church of Maryland.
Catholics now faced the same restrictions that they had faced in England.
Virginia ,begun by the Jamestown Settlement, continued to grow.
Colonists continued to push westward and settle Native American Land.
Virginia's Governor made a promise to Native Americans that he would keep settlers from taking their land.
Nathaniel Bacon a western planter became angered by the Governor and Va. Government b/c-
Va Government was dominated by Eastern Representation.
Settlers resented the Governor for his pledge to Native Americans.
Bacon's Rebellion Continued...
Settlers cont. to settle N. A. land despite the Governor's promise.
They then expected the government to protect them from the N.A. attacks.
Bacon's Rebellion cont. again...
1676 Bacon led attack on N.A. villages.
He also marched on Jamestown and sent the Governor into exile.
If it were not for his untimely death, Bacon would have been Governor of Va.
Outcomes of Bacon's Rebellion
England sent troops to restore order in Va.
It became apparent that settlers would not be limited to the coast of the Atlantic Ocean.
Va. then formed a militia to help control the N.A. and protect the settlers.
Latin for Charles's Land
King Charles then gave the colony to 8 nobles who became proprietors.
John Locke- English Philosopher, wrote the Constitution.
Concerned with Social Ranking.
"Every man has a property in his own person...The Labour of his body, and the work of his hands...are properly his"
The Carolinas however, did not develop as planned and split into North and South Carolina.
Growing rice industry= Increased demand for slave labor.
Indigo- Developed by Eliza Lucas
Blue flowering plant used to dye textiles.
1719- Political power shifts to the people.
1729- Official split of the colonies into N. & S. Carolina.
Founded in 1733 (Last British Colony Set up in the Americas)
James Oglethorpe- Charter for the Colony.
It would be a colony where debtors and poor people could make a fresh start.
Debtors- Imprisoned because they could not pay back their debts.
British hoped that Georgia would provide a buffer from Spanish Florida and protect the other colonies from Spain.
Few debtors came but hundreds of poor people did.
Religious refugees from Central Europe & also Jews.
Georgia Continued Again...
Many Settlers complained about:
Limits on Land Holding
Bans on Slave Holding & Rum.
Disappointed w/ the slow growth Oglethorpe gave the colony back to the King in 1751.
France & Spain in the New World
The British were not the only ones colonizing the Americas.
French- Quebec 1608
Initially concerned w/ Fishing & Trapping.
1663 New France became a French Royal Colony.
Louis Joliet & Jacques Marquette explored the Mississippi River in the 1670's.
Looking for a waterway to the Pacific.
French Explorers Continued...
Rene-Robert Cavelier & Sieur de La Salle followed the Mississippi south to the Gulf of Mexico.
They claimed the region Louisiana in honor of their King, King Louis XIV.
They founded New Orleans.
Growth of New France
Along the St. Lawrence River
Better relations w/ Native Americans than w/ other Europeans.
This was due to the lack of growth of French Colonies/ B/C of this Indians were not pushed off of their lands.
Spain controlled most of Mexico, the Carribean, and South & Central Americas.
To protect these landholdings, Spain conquered present day New Mexico/ Texas/Florida.
Rivalries developed between the European Nations and they carried over into the Americas.
France & England fought several wars in the 1700's.
Fighting in Europe spilled over to the colonies.
Late 1700's - Wars in Europe would greatly impact the course of the Americas.
Life in the Colonies
Middle Passage/ Slavery
Existed in the New England Colonies-
Concept of families producing only what they needed to survive.
Families relied on their children for labor.
Small Businesses in New England
Cloth/ Garments/ Candles/ Soap
They would sell leftovers.
Blacksmiths/ Shoemakers/ Furniture Makers/ Gunsmiths/ Metalsmiths/ Printers.
Shipbuilding & Fishing= HUGE New England Industries
Trade Pattern that developed over the Atlantic Ocean in the shape of a triangle.
European Fort- West African Coast
Traded to Europeans- Brought to the Americas (West Indies)
This journey became known as the "Middle Passage"
Olaudah Equiano- Personal Narrative of the "Middle Passage"
Middle Passage Continued...
African Americans that survived the journey faced the:
SLAVE MARKET- Examined/ Prodded by plantation owners, many Africans were sold as laborers.
Historians estimate, 12 million Africans were forcibly transported to the Americas between the late 1400's and mid 1800's
Middle Colonial Industries-
Small Scale Manufacturing
Middle Colonial Industries Continued...
Milder Climate & Better/ More Fertile Soil meant that Middle Colony farms could produce larger harvests.
B/C of this farmers grew CASH CROPS.
Sold for Cash (Wheat= Main Cash Crop in the Middle Colonies.)
Southern Colonies & Slavery
Warmer Climates & Supremely Rich/ Fertile Soil=
Massive Farming Operations or THE PLANTATION SYSTEM
Tobacco & Rice dominated southern Cash Crop Markets.
Tobacco- Md. & Va.
Rice- South Carolina
Plantation Owners hired Overseers-
1705 Va. created the Slave Code-
Strict Rules that governed the behavior and punishment of enslaved Africans.
African Families were torn apart.
B/C of this Africans turned to their roots for strength.
Region of flat, low lying plains along the seacoast.
Where most large plantations developed along rivers so they could float their goods to market.
Region west of the tidewater and dominated by hills and forests.
Small farms with a small amount of slaves.
These small farms greatly outnumber the large plantations.
Strong Family Ties-
Often torn apart by the slave trade.
Developed new languages, customs, and traditions based on their homelands from West Africa.
Some slaves could learn a craft like carpentry/ blacksmithing/ weaving.
They would set up a shop and share profits with their owners.
Some made enough money to purchase their freedom.
Criticisms of Slavery-
Why would most northerners not condone or accept slavery?
Government and Culture
Trouble in England- Monarchy restored after Civil War w/ limited powers.
Glorious revolution- trouble between parliament & King James II (Attempted to take back power)
Mary (James' Daughter) & William of Orange selected rule England.
William & Mary signed the English Bill of Rights-
Guaranteeing basic rights to all citizens.
Important part of English Culture that Americans shared.
How England viewed the colonies- (As an Economic Resource).
England had to export or sell more goods than they imported or bought.
To ensure this they restricted the colonists from trading.
England and England alone wanted to be the sole beneficiary of Colonial Trade.
Between 1651 & 1673 Parliament passed a series of laws restricting colonial trade known as the Navigation Acts.
Colonial Merchants had to transport their goods on English ships even if foreign ships were cheaper.
They also prevented the trade of certain products to anywhere that did not fall under the control of England.
Initially Colonists go along with this b/c it guaranteed them markets for their goods but soon began to resent England.
Some colonists ignore these laws and began to smuggle or trade illegally w/ other nations.
B/c of personal liberties won by the people of England Americans brought to the colonies a sense of freedom and respect for education.
Also the ideas of limited and representative government came with colonists.
Colonists came already w/ the idea that government was not all powerful.
Documents such as the Charter of Liberties, the Magna Carta, and the English Bill of Rights all greatly influenced colonists about the role of government.
By 1760's there were 3 types of colonies in the Americas, what were they?
Settlers governed themselves.
Ruled by proprietors or wealthy landowners.
Directly governed by England.
Elected their own Governors and members of the legislature.
Great Britain had the right to approve the Governor, & the Governor did not have a veto power.
Proprietors appointed the Governor & members of the upper house of legislature.
Colonists elected members of the lower house of legislature.
King appointed the Governor and Council, known as the upper house.
Colonists elected an assembly called the lower house.
Governors & the Council did as England instructed which often led to conflict w/ the colonists over taxation & trade restrictions.
White men who owned property.
Despite the limited field that could vote, participation in colonial government was higher than anywhere in Europe.
The Great Awakening-
1720's to the 1740's.
Ministers called for a "New Birth" or return to the strong faith of earlier days.
Men like Jonathan Edwards & George Whitefield were popular preachers advocating for a recommittment to religion.
Led to the Formation of many new churches.
Movement that began in Europe and was based upon the idea that knowledge, reason, and science could improve society.
In the Colonies the Enlightenment increased interest in Science.
Best known American Scientist at this time was Benjamin Franklin.
Freedom of the Press-
1735 John Peter Zenger was on trial for Libel.
Andrew Hamilton defended him by stating that Freedom of Speech was a basic right of Englishmen.
The Jury found Zenger not guilty and today the case is viewed as an important step towards Freedom of Press in America today.