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Austria in the 20th century
Transcript of Austria in the 20th century
Austria had a key role in World War I. Austria was pressured by Germany to declare war on Serbia because of the assassination of the Archduke Ferdinand in 1914. Like many in countries around the world, Austria-Hungary blamed the Serbian government for the attack. When Austria declared war on Serbia it created the beginning of the World War. After WWI Austria would be forced to give up large parts of empire, including Hungary and Balkan territories (Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia), minimizing it to a fraction of its size. This caused their economy to struggle immensely because of its loss of resources from the other nations. Its struggling economy was then hurt again by the European economic slump of the early 1920s. In WWII, Austria and Germany were under one regime, which violated the Treaty of Versailles. Austria existed as a federal state of Germany until the end of World War II. After Germany was defeated, Austria was under control of the Americans, British, French, and the Soviet Union until finally it gained total independence in 1955. Austria struggled on its own for the majority of the 20th century but finally began to prosper beginning around the 1970s.
Their biggest moment
One of Austria's most important events during the 20th century was the assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife in 1914.The assassination of Franz-Ferdinand and Sophie set off a rapid chain of events: Austria-Hungary, like many in countries around the world, blamed the Serbian government for the attack. As Russia supported Serbia, an Austro-Hungarian declaration of war was delayed until its leaders received assurances from German leader Kaiser Wilhelm that Germany would support their cause which would likely involve Russia's ally, France, and possibly Britain as well. On July 28, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, and the peace between Europe's great powers collapsed. Within a week, Russia, Belgium, France, Great Britain and Serbia had lined up against Austria-Hungary and Germany, thus beginning World War I.
From Chaos to Progress
At the beginning of the 20th century Austria was in a state of complete chaos. Inflation, unemployment, poverty, authoritarian and totalitarian rule, and foreign occupation was the basic experience for Austrians during the first half of the century. Between 1914 and 1950 Austria had several types of government and different forms of currencies. Then in 1938, Nazi Germany occupied the country. There was a period of peace when the Second Republic in 1945 was established. Austria was then occupied by the allies and broken into sectors managed by the Americans, British, French, and Soviet Union. But by 1955, Austria had finally regained its independence. The country then had sustained economic growth, and established a system of cooperation among rival political parties, interest groups, and government bodies that brought the country stability. Though Austrian society changed greatly, overall the 20th century was a century of chaos.
The initial industrial growth was followed by a pronounced shift to the service sector, and peasant farmers or blue-collar workers were replaced by white-collar, service-sector employees. After WWII, there was a series of emigration and immigration. Many fled for racial or political reasons.
Chapter 2. The Society and Its Environment. Rep. Print.
Austria in the 20th century
Austria's changes and continuities throughout the 20th century
Austria has competed in the majority of the Olympic games, despite the 1920 games because it was barred because of its role in WWI. Austria has won more medals in alpine skiing than any other nation.
Austria’s strong bond with the United Nations is reflected by the fact that it is one of the countries that provides the largest number of troops for peacekeeping operations. Vienna, along with New York and Geneva, serves as one of the three headquarters of the United Nations.
Austria entered the European Union in 1995. Vienna hosts a number of international organizations, including the Secretariat of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries.
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Dixon, Hayley. "Germany and Austria Started WWI Seeking European Domination, Historian Says." The Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group, 10 June 2013. Web. 20 May 2014.
"United Nations in Vienna." Austrian Foreign Ministry - Austrian Mission - Austrian Mission Vienna - UN Vienna. Web. 20 May 2014.
"Archduke Franz Ferdinand Assassinated." History.com. A&E Television Networks. Web. 20 May 2014.
"Socio Economic Impact." Coca-Cola HBC Austria. Web. 20 May 2014.
Since Coca-Cola's been introduced to Austria in 1929, it has been a sector of their economy. Coca-Cola is Austria’s largest company in the sector of non-alcoholic beverages and even though it has American roots, the company is firmly established in Austria’s economy. Every year, the company creates value added of 1 billion euros. By providing 1,250 high quality jobs and securing 13,700 more jobs in other business sectors, Coca-Cola Austria is a major stable employer.
The 1998 population count was about 95 percent of ethnic Austrian. Other numerically significant ethnic groups include Croats, Slovenes, and Czechs.
Croatian minority communities of Burgenland in Austria can be split up into two subgroups: Burgenland Croats in the Federal state of Burgenland and Burgenland Croats residing in Vienna. The causes of division are mainly of economic nature – search for employment. Today Burgenland Croats are facing a major challenge: how to stop the increasing decline of the Croatian language competence of their children.
The Burgenland Croatian Culture Association in Vienna was established to help the preservation of the Burgenland Croatian identity in Vienna, collaboration with Croats outside Austria and promotion of the interests of Burgenland Croats.
Countries and Their Cultures." Culture of Austria. Web. 20 May 2014.
Roma/Gypsies are an ethnic group in Austria that mainly live in Vienna or eastern Austria. The Roma have their own strong religious beliefs and traditions, but over the centuries they have adopted various Christian beliefs as well as Islam in order for their children to be regarded as citizens by the authorities.From 1928 the Burgenland Roma, Lovara and Sinti were forced to register on a ‘gypsy index'. From 1939 they were interned, then deported to concentration camps, where the majority died. Now the majority of Roma are city-based and many have assimilated. Many are self-employed in second-hand trading and other businesses. Roma/Gypsies are still being discriminated against today. In 1995, four Roma were murdered in a pipe bomb attack in Oberwart, Burgenland County, Austria. Racist prejudice continues against established Roma and new immigrants. A 2005 Council of Europe Anti-Racism Commission report said that many Roma continue to face serious socio-economic disadvantage, especially in education. It was also noted that Roma report prejudice and discrimination with law enforcement officers. Since there is such a small population of this group, many have not even heard of the prejudice Roma/Gypsies have faced.
A famous Austrian proverb says, "Do not allow the Gypsies to lure you behind the furnace."
Due to the fact that such a stereotypical view has been made into a proverb it can be assumed that the gypsies have always been discriminated against.
The Official Language of Austria is German. Most of the population will speak a Austro-Bavarian dialect of German. Other recognized languages include Croatian, Hungarian, etc. People speaking these languages feel that their languages are in danger of becoming extinct to their area due to the fact that the older generations are dying off and their children will not learn to speak that language. Croatian's in Austria are struggling to keep their people speaking the language in hopes that it doesn't become extinct. Croatian is more often taught as a foreign language in secondary education than the official national language. Croatians developed an association (Burgenland Croatian Culture Association) in order to help preserve their language and culture.
Austria-Hungary (also known as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy) was a constitutional union of the Empire of Austria and the Apostolic Kingdom of Hungary that existed from 1867 to 1918 until it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The countries were formed from the former Habsburg lands were Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, and Poland. This was considered one of the biggest moments because it was the establishment of the country.
"Hrvatski Centar." Hrvatski Centar. Web. 20 May 2014.