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Teacher Clarity

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Matt Johnson

on 4 June 2015

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Transcript of Teacher Clarity

Teacher Clarity
Dimension One
Clarity of Organization:
The teacher must give structure to the lesson (and course). She or he does this by (a) stating success criteria and relating them to the course learning intentions, (b) clearly relating the teaching to the learning intentions, and (c) reviewing what has been covered in the lessons (and course).
Teacher Clarity
Fendick, F. (1990). The correlation between teacher clarity of communication and student achievement gain: A meta-analysis. Unpublished Ph.D., University of Florida, FL.


Fendick tried to determine in his dissertation the relationship between teacher clarity and the mean class student learning (achievement gain) in normal public education classes in English speaking industrialized countries.

Teacher clarity is assumed to be a measure of the clarity of communication between teacher and students in both directions. A prerequisite of teacher clarity is clarity of speech which is the teacher’s ability to speak loudly enough (so all students can hear), in good English without a marked accent, without vague terms and without false starts or halts in speech (e.g. uh.. eh etc.) so that the students can comprehend what the teacher is saying.
Teacher clarity has four dimensions: organization, explanation, examples and guided practice, and assessment of student learning.
The Correlation between Teacher Clarity of communication And Student Achievement Gain
Fendick, F. (1990). The correlation between teacher clarity of communication and student achievement gain: A meta-analysis. Unpublished Ph.D., University of Florida, FL
Dimension One
Clarity of Organization:
The teacher must give structure to the lesson (and course). She or he does this by (a) stating success criteria and relating them to the course learning intentions, (b) clearly relating the teaching to the learning intentions, and (c) reviewing what has been covered in the lessons (and course).
Dimension Three
Clarity of Examples and Guided Practice:
The teacher must demonstrate examples of answering post-test-type questions, (b) answer any questions the students might have, (c) give the students enough time to practice, (d) explain points that have not been answered well and provide standards and rules for satisfactory performance, and (e) provide the students with knowledge on how well they are progressing toward scoring well on the post test.
Dimension Four
Clarity of assessment of student learning:
The teacher cannot communicate well without receiving feedback from the students. The teacher checks whether the students understand by (a) asking questions during the presentation, (b) encouraging relevant discussion, and (c) checking the students’ classwork, homework and tests.
Analysis
There were a total of 39 studies in this meta-analysis based on a total of 110 values between one dimension of teacher clarity and class achievement gain. An effect size has been calculated for all studies included. Various methods of analyses were used to determine correlations between student achievement and teacher clarity.
Some of the questions answered in this dissertation:
What is the strength of the relationship between teacher clarity and student learning? The effect-size between teacher clarity and mean class achievement gain was .75 (if you read the original article it expresses the results in terms of correlations but for this summary we have converted them all to mean effect-sizes).
Does clarity of organization of the lesson (course), explanation, examples and guided practice and assessment of student learning have different relationships to student learning? The effect sizes were:
• Organization: .64
• Explanation: .70
• Examples and guided practice: .46
• Assessment of student learning: .64
Effect Sizes
When 2 dimensions were rated at the same time (i.e. organization and explanation) the effect size was significantly higher than for a single dimension (0.9)
Do student ratings and teacher clarity have a higher relationship with student learning than observer ratings?

The effect size for student ratings was .4 and for observer ratings was 0.28. Student ratings do have a higher correlation than observer ratings, but student ratings tend to take place in college so the effect might be due to this relationship between rater and grade.
Is teacher clarity more predictive of student learning at college, secondary or elementary school? The effect size for college was significantly higher than that for elementary school but not so for secondary school. The importance of teacher clarity does increase with grade level.
Questions where no significant differences were found between the groups:
• Importance of teacher clarity in subjects based on student verbal ability vs. numerical ability
• Large classes vs. small classes
• Experimental classes vs. normal classes
Summary of the findings
The correlation between teacher clarity and student achievement gain (effect size) was found to be 0.75). The different dimensions of teacher clarity did not produce significantly different effect sizes. When combining at least two dimensions of teacher clarity there was a significantly higher effect size of 0.60.

Larger effect sizes were obtained with student ratings rather than observer ratings, experienced rather than inexperienced teachers and college rather than elementary school teachers. Class size and subject taught made no difference to the effect size.
Teacher Clarity Self Assessment Tool
An online survey tool to assess staff awareness and level of current practice.
Adobe Forms Central
The teacher must explain the subject matter of the lesson in such a way that it is easy for the students to understand. To do this the teacher must (a) explain things simply and make them interesting (b) repeat and stress directions and difficult points, (c) introduce new content in small steps and relate it to content that has been already mastered by the students, and (d) teach at a pace appropriate to the topic and to the students.

Dimension Two
Clarity of Explanation:
What does this mean for our school and our teachers?

Exploring the four domains with view to current practice:
Organisation
Explanation
Examples and guided practice
Assessment of student learning

The staff self-assessment tool. Gathering data on what we do now.
Activity 1: Exploring the four domains with view to current practice:
Organisation
Explanation
Examples and guided practice
Assessment of student learning

Think about what is working well in classroom practice and planning at our school in relation to the four domains.....
What could we be doing to enhance each of the domains?
What are our identified opportunities?
What are our quick wins?
Write these on post it notes forthe next activity
Activity 5 - Surveying the Landscape*
Surveying the landscape - what's working well?
Activity Seven - Prioritising opportunities
Activity Six - Quick wins template
The case for change - One for each identified opportunity
John Hattie visible learning part 1 - What does work
Multiple measures of effective teaching
2. Teachers and exec on their days rate top 20 effect sizes individually (think pair share) in groups then top 5
Introduction: Naplan and current situation

Results and effect size statistics, Overview the the professional learning sessions and activities.
3. then introduce videos
Welcome
What do teachers and schools do that has the greatest effect size? What practices, systems and processes have the greatest positive influence on student achievement?

Resource: Effect size sheets, Presentation Activities sheet.
Activity One
Effect Size
Activities
Now that you have viewed the clip, reflect and consider your ratings on the effect size sheet. In groups consider if you would change your list and if so how?
Activity Two
Effect Size
Executive staff have made notes from prior research by Fendick (1990) and will share what they found resonated with them, what they found surprising or challenging and what they expected to find in the research.
Activity Three
Learning Circle and Talking Stick
Activity Four
Affinity Diagram
In groups the executive staff explore the four domains of Teacher Clarity with a view to current practice. The executive will be broken into four groups; each group will have a different domain (organisation, explanation, examples and guided practice/assessment of student learning) Post it notes will be used for responses.
*Creating Tomorrow Inc
One page for each domain/executive
*Creating Tomorrow Inc
*Creating Tomorrow Inc
Activity 8
Executive Meeting Discussion

Link to School Plan

Link to Quality Teaching in NSW public schools

Link to Australian Professional Standard for Principals


Classroom Walkthrough

The Focus:
- link to a Problem of Practice


eg: How do we engage students in sustained interaction, where communication is reciprocal, and is focused on the substance of the lesson?


Executive Meeting Discussion

Link to School Plan

Link to Quality Teaching in NSW public schools

Link to Australian Professional Standard for Principals


Classroom Walkthrough

Read over observation notes – silent self reflection.
Choose 3-5 pieces of evidence – transfer to post it notes.
Place your evidence onto team’s butcher’s paper.
Read what others have written.
Question any notes that you are unsure of.
Summarise findings and discuss next level of work. Identify the action plan.

Reflecting on the data

Record literal observations only- what you see and hear
Refrain from disrupting the class
Maintain teacher and student anonymity
Related to Problem of Practice
Focus on what the students DO, SAY, MAKE, WRITE
Focus on the task/s

Note Taking Tips!

Observations need to focus on the Problem of Practice and planned questions such as:
What are the teachers doing and saying? Are they using research-based teaching strategies?
What are the students doing and saying? Do student groupings support learning?
What is the nature of the task? Do students understand their learning goals?
Is there evidence of higher order levels of student learning?
Does student achievement data correlate with walkthrough data?

Conducting Classroom

Observations


Theory of Action

If teachers implement the four dimensions of teacher clarity, being organisation, explanation, examples and guided practice, assessment of student learning, then students will be engaged in broad, deep activities where learning intentions are clear and success criteria is explicit, therefore student learning has a greater effect size.

The Process



Why a Classroom Walkthrough?

* a process that reflects current research
eg Fullan (2001), DuFour (2002), Marvano, Walters and McNulty (2005), Reeves (2004)

* developing a professional learning community can deepen professional understanding and become a lever for change.

* a classroom walkthrough focuses on curriculum, instruction and assessment.


Classroom Walkthrough

Take photos – a visual celebration of learning

ADD NAPLAN SHEETS
RESEARCH
Sharing of Program Logic
around our current situation, research and directions
Full transcript