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Urology

English I - First Presentation - Intec 2011
by

Luis Medina

on 9 February 2011

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Transcript of Urology

Urology Is the medical and surgical specialty that focuses on the urinary tracts of males and females, and on the reproductive system of males. Medical professionals specializing in the field of urology are called urologists and are trained to diagnose, treat, and manage patients with urological disorders. The organs covered by urology include the kidneys, adrenal glands, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra, and the male reproductive organs. Urology is one of the most competitive specialties to enter for physicians. In men, the urinary system overlaps with the reproductive system, and in women the urinary tract opens into the vulva. In both sexes, the urinary and reproductive tracts are close together, and disorders of one often affect the other. Urology combines management of medical (i.e. non-surgical) problems such as urinary tract infections and benign prostatic hyperplasia, as well as surgical problems such as the surgical management of cancers, the correction of congenital abnormalities, and correcting stress incontinence. Urology is closely related to, and in some cases overlaps with, the medical fields of oncology, nephrology, gynecology, andrology, pediatric surgery, gastroenterology, and endocrinology. Subdisciplines As a discipline that involves the study of many organs and physiological systems, urology can be broken down into subfields. At larger centers and especially university hospitals, many urologists sub-specialize within a particular field of urology. Endourology Endourology is the branch of urology that deals with minimally invasive surgical procedures. As opposed to open surgery, endourology is performed using smallcameras and instruments inserted into the urinary tract. Laparoscopy Urologic oncology Neurourology Pediatric urology Andrology Reconstructive
Urology Female urology Laparoscopy is a rapidly evolving branch of Urology and has replaced some open surgical procedures. Robotic assisted surgery of the prostate, kidney, and ureter has been expanding this field. Today, the majority of prostatectomies in the U.S. are carried out by robotic surgery. Urologic oncology concerns the surgical treatment of malignant genitourinary diseases such as cancer of the prostate, adrenal glands, bladder, kidneys, ureters, testicles and penis. Neurourology concerns nervous system control of the genitourinary system, and of conditions causing abnormal urination. Pediatric urology concerns urologic disorders in children. Such disorders include cryptorchism (undescended testes), congenital abnormalities of the genito-urinary tract, enuresis, underdeveloped genitalia (due to delayed growth or delayed puberty, often an endocrinological problem), and vesicoureteral reflux. Andrology focuses on the male reproductive system. It is mainly concerned with male infertility, erectile dysfunction and ejaculatory disorders. Since male sexuality is largely controlled by hormones, andrology overlaps with endocrinology. Surgery in this field includes fertilization procedures, vasectomy reversals, and the implantation of penile prostheses. Vasectomies may also be included here although most urologists perform this procedure. Reconstructive urology reestablishes functionality of the genito-urinary tract. Structures of the urethra or the ureter often require reconstructive surgery. Female urology is a branch dealing with overactive bladder, pelvic organ prolapse, and urinary incontinence. Thorough knowledge of the female pelvic floor together with urodynamic skills are necessary to diagnose and treat these disorders. Depending on the cause of the individual problem a medical or surgical treatment can be the solution. HISTORY Of Urology Egypt 1500-1000 B. C. In Egypt, circumcisions was practiced to honor the pact between God and Abraham.
5000 a.C. The most important Hindu doctor was Susruta, who around 500 BC first performed an operation known as "size", which consisted of the removal of bladder stones via the perineum.
The Middle Ages Galen was considered the most important figure of medicine and whatever he said was law. In reality, during that time it was prohibited to dissect a human body, so all he knew came from the dissection of animals. Europe 1200-Spanish Aman Vilanova wrote one of the first books on Urology, a monograph on bladder stone addressed to Pope Clement V with recommendations about the disease.
1498-Julián Gutiérrez de Toledo writes the first major treatise on stones
The most important Spanish figure of urology in Spain and almost everyone was Francisco Diaz, considered the father of urology, which at that time wrote the first comprehensive treatise of Urology, called "Treaty of all diseases of the bladder, kidneys and flesh of the urethra, with three volumes, devoted to the bladder, kidney and penis respectively. It perfectly describes urethral strictures and why they occur and describe the urethrotome, an instrument made by a probe and a blade capable of cutting the stenosis. XIX Century and On 1920: Urology is incorporated in Spain and doctorate courses.
1960: Urology is incorporated in Spain as a subject in the Degree.
1964: appears at the first chair of Urology in Medicine
1970: Urology in Murcia is incorporated as a subject in the Degree.2005: Urology accepted as an independent branch of surgery. Urology’s diseases Renal failure is defined by functional impairment of the kidney. Renal failure can be acute or chronic and can be further broken down into categories of pre-renal, intrinsic renal and post-renal.
Acute kidney injury (AKI), previously called acute renal failure (ARF),is a rapid loss of kidney function. Its causes are numerous and include low blood volume, exposure to toxins and urinary obstruction . AKI is diagnosed on the basis of clinical history, such as decreased urine production, and characteristic laboratory findings, such as elevated blood urea nitrogen and creatine
Chronic kidney disease (CKD), also known as chronic renal disease, is a progressive loss in renal function over a period of months or years. The symptoms of worsening kidney function are unspecific, and might include feeling generally unwell and experiencing a reduced appetite. Kidney disease Non-renal urinary disease The causes of diseases of the body are common to the urinary tract. Structural and or traumatic change can lead to hemorrhage functional blockage or inflammation. Colonisation by bacteria, protozoa or fungi can cause infection. Uncontrolled cell growth can cause neoplasia. For example:
Urinary track infection (UTIs),interstitial cystitis
incontinence (involuntary loss of urine), benign prostatic hyperplasia (where the prostate overgrows), prostatitis (inflammation of the prostate).
Transitional cell carcinoma (bladder, cancer), renal cell carcinoma (kidney cancer), and prostate cancer are examples of neoplasm affecting the urinary system.
The term "uropathy" refers to a disease of the urinary tract, while nephropathy " refers to a disease of the kidney.
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