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Religious Art in the Age of Faith

Group 1 Museum Exhibition
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on 2 November 2013

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Transcript of Religious Art in the Age of Faith


Join us, as we take you on a trip around the religious world of art, from the countries of Africa, to regions of Asia, and throughout Northern Europe. You'll view delicate artifacts and sacred symbols of cultures and religions from around the world. Here, their priceless contributions and impacts on the world of art are displayed.

The Museum of Priceless Artifacts
and
the SEDK Foundation on Religious Art welcome you to their featured exhibit...
Religious Art in Africa
Our first stop, Religious Art in Africa. Here one of our docents, Duane, will take you on a journey through the great cultures of Africa and show you some of the artifacts brought back from places such as Guinea, Mozambique and Angola.
Religious Art in the Age of Faith
October 31, 2013 - February 2, 2014
Religious Art in Asia
Next, we take you through Asia, where Keana shows us how important art was in the religious lives of people in China, India and Japan.
Islamic Art
Christian Art in
Northern Europe

Early Christian, Byzantine and Romanesque Art
Our third stop will take you through Northern Europe, with Eric as your guide.
As we continue on our journey of Religious Art in the Age of Faith, we head next to the world of Islamic Art. Here, Safiyyah will show you around.
Our final stop on this tour has led us to the world of Early Christian, Byzantine and Romanesque Art, where Joanna is waiting to tell you great things! So, let's go...
The Museum of Priceless Artifacts
Collection Reproductions Boutique
Did you enjoy the tour? Please explore our collections boutique for great reproductions of the fabulous and intriguing works of art you just viewed. Right this way...
In the 15th century exploration led by Portugal led Europeans to many parts of Africa that were interested in starting trade and interested in converting African natives to Christianity. During this process the Portuguese established transoceanic trade routes that led to the training of goods and slaves throughout the world and this quest that the revelation of tribal practices that were observed during cultural rituals that involved a great number of art discoveries, many of which were removed from private or public collections, and recovered by the National Geographic Museums between the 1850s and the 1920s to preserve for exhibits such as this.
Of these discoveries, over 140 pieces were found to have some significant supernatural significance throughout the many different cultures of Angola, Mozambique, Guinea – bissaie,,yaka,nkanu, zobo,suku, matapa, chokwe and bidjogo.
Bushongo mythology: Kuba Kingdom
The Kuba believed in the Bumba (Sky Father) who created life with the Earth Mother. It was believed that they spewed from the sun, moon, stars, and planets and that these deities and the Kuba placed importance in the Woot (supernatural being). Known as the "Children of Woot, The Kuba believe the woot was the first human and bringer of civilization

Bambuti mythology :The Mbuti
Everything in the Bambuti life is centered on the forest or "mother". They consider the forest to be their great protector and provider and believe that it is a sacred place. An important ritual that impacts the Bambuti's life is referred to as molimo. The molimo is a noisily celebration to wake the forest, in the belief that if bad things are happening to the tribl is because “mother” is asleep. This is done by collecting Food from each hut to feed the molimo, and in the evening, the men of the tribal dance and sing around the fire, while the Women and children remain in their huts with the doors closed.
Lugbara mythology: Lugbara


The in the presence or spirits exhibit brings together a wealth of unknown types of art found out several areas of central Africa’s diverse cultures. It highlights and showcases a number of little-known parts of African culture. This exhibit enriches the Religious Art in Africa exhibit, bringing to it and African artistic heritage that up until now was little known. This impressive collection opens doors to provide missing cultural puzzle pieces that may help fill in the gaps between the Africa culture and those African Americans spiritual ancestry prior to indoctrination into Christianity.

Fresco from Ajanta, c. 450-500

This painting can be found to the left on the main shrine in the caves of Ajanta. It depicts one of the most beloved bodhisattvas, Avalokitesvara. The term ”bodhisattva” refers to a person that has been awakened by the Buddhist spirit. According to Mahayana Doctrine, Alavokitesvara postponed his ascension into Buddhahood until he assisted every being in achieving Nirvana. Avalokitesvara takes the largest numbers of forma across Asia. In this painting, his tan body, darkened only by the locks of his curly hair, is delicate elegant. He wears pearls, amythyst, and other attributes of traditional Indian jewelry. On his head sits a crown, which at some point was most likely colored in extreme detail but faded over time. His eyes are lowered in a meditative state. His calm, spiritual face sets the tone and mood of the room. In his right hand, he holds a lotus blossom which represents his spiritual awakening.

Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove, an Eastern Jin tomb painting 3rd century CE
The Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove were a group of scholars, writers and musicians. This group wished to escape the intrigues, corruptions and stifling atmosphere of court life during polictical frought of the Three Kingdom period. The gathered in a bamboo grove and enjoyed a simple life of praise and rustic life. They introduced personal freedom, religion and the celebration of nature. The Seven Sages became the symbol and influence of Chinese poetry, music, art and over all culture.

Northern Wei wall murals and painted figurines from the Yungang Grottoes, dated 5th to 6th centuries.

A mural is a piece of art directly painted on a wall. In this painting the eyes and the clothing were not important. The eyes were the spirit and the decisive factor. This tomb painting represented daily life and worship and is considered 1 of 3 of the greatest paintings of Wuxi, the most famous Chinese painter.

Statuette with Snow Glasses, Jomon Era (1000-400 BCE)

Dogu are constructed of clay and are typically 10 to 30 cm high. Most figurines appear to be modeled as females having big eyes, small waist and wide hips. They are considered to represent goddesses. They are associated with fertility rites and known as mother goddesses. Unbroken figures are rare, and most are missing an arm, leg or other body part. In many cases, the parts have been cut off during a fertility ritual. In the Japanese language dogu is also a term for any humanoid figure made of clay.

Apsara, dancing celestial, 12th century

This is a 12th century sandstone of an Apsara from Uttar Pradesh, India. An Apsara is a female spirit of the clouds and waters in Hindu and Buddhist mythology. Apsaras are beautiful, supernatural female beings. They are youthful and elegant, and superb in the art of dancing. They are often wives of the Gandharvas, the court musicians of Indra. They dance to the music made by the Gandharvas in the palaces of the Gods. They have been known to seduce and entertain Gods and men. As beings who are often depicted as taking flight, or at the service of God, they are often compared to angels. They are also often associated with fertility rites.

Balustrade-holding Yaksa, Madhya Pradesh, India, Sunga period (2nd-1st century BCE)

Yaksa refers to a class of demon who in popular Indian folk-lore, devour men. Though their kindred, the ghoulish rakshasas, delighted in wreaking misfortune and death on mankinds, yakshas are generally beneficent. Some tales of yakshas lend them an air of mischief.

Bronze Mirror in Ancient Japan (300 BC-300 AD)

Bronze mirrors were introduced into Japan from China and Korea during the Yayoi period. They had a religious function and were regarded as symbols of authority. The mirror together with sword and jewels represented imperial power. Japanese designs such as native plants and animals symbolized good fortune. These mirrors often resembled tortoises and were giving as wedding presents for luck.
A scene of two horseback riders from a wall painting in the tomb of Lou Rui at Taiyuan, Shanxi, Northern Qi Dynasty (550-577)

This tomb painting also represented daily life and is one of the most famous works of art by Wuxi. The riders represent great power during the Northern Qi Dynasty.

Palace Lady part of the scroll for Admonitions of the Instructress to the Palace Ladies (232-300 BCE)

It was painted to illustrate a poetic text to reprimand Empress Jia and to provide advice to the women in the imperial court. Empress Jia violent and immoral behavior was outraging the court. It is renowned and the most famous Chinese painting in the world. The first twelve scenes are missing due to a lost at a earlier date.

The Flight into Egypt, c. 1544-45, Jacopo Bassano (Jacopo da Ponte). Italian, 1510-1592, Oil on canvas.
69 1/2 x 75 7/8 in. (176.5 x 192.7 cm)

This artwork is displaying Moses and Aaron pleading with the Pharaoh to have the Israelites freed. Aaron changed his rod into a serpent to try and convince the Pharaoh that they have the power of God. Francois the second de Dinteville who was the bishop of Auxerre is shown as Aaron and the bishops brother is shown as Moses. All while the three brothers Jean, François, Guillaume, and Gaucher de Dinteville are the protagonists who were all members from the Francis 1 court.

Adoration of Christ, Central Panel of the Portinari Triptych, Hugo van der Goes, c-1473-78.

In the central panel there are several objects with symbolic significance in addition to the principle figures at Christ’s birth. There are lilies in a vase that symbolize Mary’s virginity and purity, and the sheaf of wheat symbolizes the Last Supper. In a smaller vase there are seven flowers, seven was a common number in Medieval and Renaissance art. The Virgin had seven sorrows, there were seven sacraments, seven sins and seven virtues. Three was the number of the holy trinity and four was the number of man (man had four limbs, seasons, elements, stages of life, etc.) and the number seven also symbolized a joining of man and God. One removed their shoes typically as a symbol of respect and the shoe we see would show that this is now holy ground.

The colors in paintings from this era are also symbolic, Mary wears the traditional deep blue which was associated with her. Joseph wears a red robe, in Christian paintings red symbolizes the Blood and Passion of Christ. The lilies in the vase are red, white and blue which also tie into the symbolism of Holy Blood, purity and the color of the Virgin. If you look closely at the background of the central panel you can see that earlier the angels have announced the news to the same shepherds who are now worshiping Christ. This repeating of figures within a frame is known as continuous narrative and is seen throughout art history from Ancient times through the Renaissance.

Christ Giving His Blessing, 1478, Hans Memling, Netherlandish, c.1430/40-1494. Oil on oak panel.
14-3/8 x 10-1/2 in. (36.5 x 26.7 cm); panel: 15-1/8 x 11-1/8 in. (38.4 x 28.3 cm).

This artwork fills the canvas with Christ's head and shoulders. This portrays Christ as a gentle spirit in a fully human term that is compelling devotional image. Hans Memling got the status for someone who transformed religious and the portrait imagery in Europe from this on forward. This artwork was done on an oak panel .

Christ Blessing, Surrounded by a Donor and His Family, ca. 1575–80, German (Lower Saxony) Painter. Oil on wood.
Central panel 31 3/8 x 37 5/8 in. (79.7 x 95.6 cm); each wing 32 x 14 5/8 in. (81.3 x 37.1 cm) , (17.190.13–15)

This artwork was done by an unknown northern German painter. The verses that are inscribed on the tablets that are above the figures is from Psalms and also the Gospel of John. These versus were taken word for word from the Low German edition from the Martian Luther's Bible translation. With Christ being in this artwork is showing Christ being accessible to his followers/believers. This artwork was done with oil on wood.
Branchini Madonna, 1427, Giovanni di Paolo , Italian, 1403-1482. Tempera and gold leaf on panel.

This is a combination of Madonna of Humility which is the larger lady being displayed and at the top of the artwork is the Virgin as Queen of heaven and is wearing a crown and a ermine cloak. There are also a lot of iconography throughout the artwork that reference Christ and the Virgin. The inscription around the Virgin Halo is the artist own prayer which reads "“Protect, O Virgin, the man who has painted thee.”

The Flight into Egypt, c. 1544-45, Jacopo Bassano (Jacopo da Ponte), Italian, 1510-1592. Oil on canvas.

This piece of artwork has a lot of different parts to it. The lilies that are in the vase symbolized the purity of Mary. The wheat that is placed on the ground in the artwork is used by the artist to symbolize the last supper. The red that Joseph is wearing in the artwork symbolized the blood of Christ. There was also a lot of use of having images in pairs of 7 which is used to symbolize the joining of man and God.

Last Supper, Leonardo da Vinci, 1495-1498.

This was commissioned as a renovation in the Convent of Santa Maria della Grazie, Milan church. This is the depiction by the artist of how the last supper was. It took roughly 3 year to be completed. The artist chose the moment of Jesus after he told his twelve disciples that one for them would betray him as described in the Gospel of John, 13:21.
Tommaso Portinari and sons with Sts. Thomas and Anthony, Left Panel, Hugo van der Goes, c-1473-38.
In the background of the artwork you can see Mary and Joseph with the donkey while they are on their way to Egypt. This artwork features the Saint Thomas. The others in this artwork are a family and the men are on one side and the women are on the other in this artwork.
Mosque-lamp-shaped vessel with Arabic inscriptions, Ottoman period (ca. 1299–1923), 1525–40. Turkey, Iznik. Stonepaste; painted in blue under transparent glaze.

Earthenware ceramics were made in Iznik as early as the second half of the fourteenth century. This motif serves as a backdrop for two beautifully executed Arabic inscriptions: "Power belongs to God, the One" (repeated three times on the body of the object) and (on the flaring upper section) "there is no hero except cAli; no sword except dhu-l-faqar [cAli's sword]."

Left - Bifolium from the “Blue Qur’an” North Africa, 9th –10th century.

This gold Kufic calligraphy on indigo-dyed parchment comes from the celebrated “Blue Qur’an”, one of the most lavish Qur’an manuscripts ever created. The alphanumeric notation system (abjad), here apparent in the form of letters appearing in medallions at the end of each verse, is believed to be an act that was subsequently reserved only for the western Islamic world.

Right - Binding: From a manuscript of the Mantiq al-Tayr (The Language of the Birds) of Farid al-Din cAttar, ca. 1600; Safavid Iran (Isfahan). This is an elaborate example of the most common type of Safavid binding.
Mounted Hunter with Dog, 16th century; Safavid Iran.
The tiny holes around the figure of this hunter chasing game birds indicate that this sketch was used as a pounce, to copy the image onto another work. In Islamic paintings, stock figures that filled court or battle scenes or natural elements that elaborated landscape backgrounds were often copied into a number of compositions from preexisting sketches such as this. Holes were pricked around the image to be copied and transferred onto an underlying paper by dusting charcoal over it.
Left - Manuscript of a Sulawesi Qur’an, Scribe: Ismail bin Abdallah al-Jawi of Makassar Indonesia, Sulawesi Island, Laiyaka (probably Laikang), dated 25 Ramadan 1219 H / 28 December 1804 CE.

Right - The Shaikh al-Islam Discoursing to an Audience: Page from a dispersed Divan of Mahmud cAbd al-Baki, 1590–95; Ottoman Iraq (Baghdad). Mahmud cAbd al-Baki (1526/7–1600) was a Turkish judge and poet whose most important work is his Divan, or collection of poetical works, which reflects the pleasures of courtly life in Istanbul in the sixteenth century. This is a page from one of the four known illustrated copies of this manuscript.
Left - Khusrau Hunting: Page from a manuscript of the Khusrau and Shirin of Hatifi, dated 1498; Ottoman Turkey (probably Istanbul).

Right - Manuscript of an Ottoman Qur’an Ottoman Empire (Turkey), ca. 1500 Copied by Shaykh Hamdallah b. Mustafa

This manuscript is one of the greatest early Ottoman Qur’ans. The colophon in Ottoman Turkish on folio 278r identifies the scribe as Shaykh Hamdallah ibn Mustafa.
Qur’an folio in gold Kufic script North Africa, 9th–10th century.

The execution of this Qur’an folio in gold Kufic script on vellum involved the lengthy and expensive process called chrysography The letters were written in “liquid glue,” filled in with a careful application of ground gold suspended in a solution, and finally outlined with pale brown ink using a thin-nibbed stylus. The vocalizations used to read and recite the text have been applied in the form of dots painted in red, blue and green. An eight-petaled rosette framing the letter kaf (“k”) signals the end of a group of ten verses in the abjad system, found also in other Kufic Qur’ans.
Madonna and Child with Book, c. 1502-03, Raffaello Sanzio also called Raphael, Italian, 1483-1520. Oil on panel. 21-3/4 x 15-3/4 in. (55.2 x 40 cm)

This artwork is balanced and describes the layout as simplicity and naturally. The figures in this artwork is Madonna and child. There is emphasis on the book by having both the child and Madonna holding it. The child looking up symbolizes his own sacrifice to be the redeemer of man. This piece is very spiritual. This artwork was made with oil on panel.

Resurrection, c. 1455, Dieric Bouts, Flemish, c.1420-1475. Distemper on linen.
35-3/8 x 29-1/4 in. (89.9 x 74.3 cm)
In this piece of art Christ is rising from the tomb and the atmosphere around it. It is part of a five piece alter piece. The sky of the painting has diminished a little with age and you cannot see the pink and blue sky as much anymore except for the edges due to the framing. Dieric Bouts was a leading Norther European artist in his time and used distemper on linen.

Tile panel, dated 1591–2; Ottoman Syria Composite body with underglaze paint.

Inscription reads: “The weak servant Kayun ibn Abdallah, the sinful, the one in need of God’s mercy, founded this blessed mosque.
Tughra (Imperial Cipher) of Sultan Süleyman the Magnificent (r. 1520–1566), ca. 1555; Ottoman Turkey (Istanbul).

The Ottoman tughra is a calligraphic emblem of the sultan's authority that was included in all official documents, such as firmans (royal decrees), endowment papers, correspondence, and coins. Used by the first Ottoman sultan in 1324, it consists of the name of the reigning sultan, his father's name, his title, and the phrase "the eternally victorious." A specific court artist was designated to draw the undecorated, standard tughra. A court illuminator assisted him in the decoration on certain imperial documents. The delicate scroll design and naturalistic flowers enhance the harmonious lines of calligraphy, creating a colorful voluminous effect.
Hungarian-style Shield, ca. 1500–1550 Eastern European Wood, leather, gesso, polychromy.

Wing-shaped shields, with the distinctive upward-sweeping back edge, were the characteristic light-cavalry shields of Hungary. During the sixteenth century, the style was adopted across much of eastern Europe by both Christian and Islamic horsemen. The shield's elongated upper edge was designed to defend the back of the head and neck against cuts from the saber, the preferred cavalry weapon in that region. This shield is painted on its exterior with the double-bladed sword of the Prophet Muhammad and on its interior with the Crucifix and instruments of the Passion. This unusual mix of Islamic and Christian symbols suggests that the shield was used in a tournament by a Christian warrior dressed in oriental fashion.
A Mughal Gem-Set-Jade-Hilted Dagger, India, CIrca 1700, and Jade-Mounted Scabbard, 19th Century.

The slightly curved watered-steel blade with central ridge and double grooves.

Javanese Swords (Sundang), Indonesia, 19th Century.
The double-edged wavy steel blade with central groove and gilt abstract illustration.
A pair of Ottoman silver gilt and wire-inlaid
pistols with metal thread-embroidered saddle holsters, Turkey or Balkans, 19th Century.
A brass qibla-compas signed by Farajullah Isfahani, Persia, dated December 1943-January 1944. And a steel Bazuband, Persia, 19th Century.

Circular form with hinged lid and suspension loop, incised with inscriptions and zodiacal signs, the interior with needle and vacant recess for compass; thebazuband engraved with Shia inscriptions.
Inscriptions:
“Made for Shihab al-Din al-Husayni al-Najafi al-Mar’ashi by Farajullah Isfahani in muharram 1363 (December 1943 – January 1944)”.
Two other instruments by Farajullah are known: a qibla dial in a private collection dated A.H. 1354/A.D. 1935-36, and a compass sold in these rooms, 1 April 2009, lot 105, dated A.H. 1340/A.D. 1921-22.

Left - Prayer carpet, late 16th century.

Ottoman Attributed to Bursa or Istanbul, Turkey Pile weave, wool and cotton pile on silk foundation, 288 asymmetrical knots per square inch. This rare rug is one of a small group of Ottoman court prayer rugs featuring a prayer niche, or mihrab, with architectural elements such as columns and capitals. Characteristically Ottoman are the carnations and tulips at the base of the arches as well as the feathery lanceolate leaves, hyacinths, and other flowers in the curvilinear border pattern. The harmonious design, skillful weaving, and luxury materials reflect court taste.
Miroku Bosatsu at Chugu-ji (538-710BC)

This historical Buddha is often seen as a kind of Saviour who currently resides in one of the Buddhist heavenly realms. It is a camphr wood statue dating to the Asuka period. Formerly painted, it is now finished in lacquer. It is considered a National Treasure and is housed at the temple of Chugu-ji.

Artifact Reproduction Pricing

-al-Andalus - $20.00 ea

-Astrolabe - $15.00 ea

-Coins (set of 4) - $15.00 ea

-Mamluk Quran - $25.00 ea

-Pin Box - $12.50 ea

-Qajar Axe - $65.00

-Rupees (set of 2) - $7.50 ea
Artifact Reproduction Pricing

-Apsara, dancing celestial - $245.00

-Balustrade-holding Taska, Madhya Pradesh, India, Sunga period - $875.00 ea

-Bronze Mirror in Ancient Japan - $40.00 ea

-Palace Lady - $30.00 ea

-Two Horseback Riders, Taiyuan, Shanxi, Northern Qi Dynasty (550-577) - $35.00 ea
Artifact Reproduction Pricing

-Branchini Madonna, 1427 - $65.00 ea

-Last Supper - $125.00 ea

-Moses and Aaron before Pharaoh - $66.00 ea

-Christ Giving His Blessing - $25.00 ea

-Adoration of Christ - $200.00 ea

Artifact Reproduction Pricing

-A-Tshol - $80.00 ea

-Bushongo - $225.00 ea

-Lugbara - $35.00 ea

-Ritual Image - $20.00 ea
Thank you for visiting the Museum of Priceless Artifacts. We hope you learned a lot about the influence of religion on cultures around the world, and were able to obtain some unique artifact reproductions from our boutique. Please, tell your friends and family about the great exhibit you've seen here today, and we look forward to seeing you again soon, have a wonderful day!
Works Cited

Art, Metropolitan Museum of. Art of the Ottomans before 1600: Islamic Arts & Architecture. October 2011. October 2013 <http://islamic-arts.org/2011/art-of-the-ottomans-before-1600/>.

Heidemann, Stefan. Calligraphy on Islamic Coins: Islamic Art and Architecture. April 2012. October 2013 <http://islamic-arts.org/2012/calligraphy-on-islamic-coins/>.

John Coltrane Quartet. "Brazilia." Brazilia. New york, 1965.

Sayre, Henry M. A World of Art. Seventh Edition. New York: Prentice Hall, 2012.

Art, Metropolitan Museum of. Art of the Ottomans before 1600: Islamic Arts & Architecture. October 2011. October 2013 <http://islamic-arts.org/2011/art-of-the-ottomans-before-1600/>.

Heidemann, Stefan. Calligraphy on Islamic Coins: Islamic Art and Architecture. April 2012. October 2013 <http://islamic-arts.org/2012/calligraphy-on-islamic-coins/>.

"The Flight into Egypt - Browse by Title - Norton Simon Museum." Home » Norton Simon Museum. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Oct. 2013. <http://www.nortonsimon.org/collections/browse_title.php?id=M.1969.35.P>.

"Resurrection - Browse by Title - Norton Simon Museum." Home » Norton Simon Museum. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Oct. 2013. <http://www.nortonsimon.org/collections/browse_title.php?id=F.1980.1.P>.

"Art History Blogger: Hugo van der Goes and the Portinari Altarpiece." Art History Blogger. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Oct. 2013. <http://arthistoryblogger.blogspot.com/2011/07/hugo-van-der-goes-and-portinari.html>.

"Art History Blogger: Hugo van der Goes and the Portinari Altarpiece." Art History Blogger. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Oct. 2013. <http://arthistoryblogger.blogspot.com/2011/07/hugo-van-der-goes-and-portinari.html>.

"Christ Giving His Blessing - Browse by Title - Norton Simon Museum." Home » Norton Simon Museum. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Oct. 2013. <http://www.nortonsimon.org/collections/browse_title.php?id=M.1974.17.P>.

Period, Time. "German (Lower Saxony) Painter: Christ Blessing, Surrounded by a Donor and His Family (17.190.13-15) | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art." The Metropolitan Museum of Art - Home. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Oct. 2013. <http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/17.190.13-15>.

Period, Time. "Master of the Dinteville Allegory: Moses and Aaron before Pharaoh: An Allegory of the Dinteville Family (50.70) | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art." The Metropolitan Museum of Art - Home. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Oct. 2013. <http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/50.70>.

"File:Última Cena - Da Vinci 5.jpg - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Oct. 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:%C3%9Altima_Cena_-_Da_Vinci_5.jpg>.

"The Last Supper (Leonardo da Vinci) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Oct. 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Last_Supper_%28Leonardo_da_Vinci%

"Madonna and Child with Book - Browse by Title - Norton Simon Museum." Home » Norton Simon Museum. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Oct. 2013. <http://www.nortonsimon.org/collections/browse_title.php?id=M.1972.2.P>.

"Branchini Madonna - Browse by Title - Norton Simon Museum." Norton Simon Museam. nortonsimon.org, n.d. Web. 20 Oct. 2013. < http://www.nortonsimon.org/collections/browse_title.php?id=F.1978.01.P>.


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