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Transcript of Istanbul
Sultan Bayezid II (1481-1512) supporter of Western and Eastern culture
>Muslim and Jewish refugees
>Threatened death to non-supporters
>Rising power of Ottoman empire
-First Printing Press established in Constantinople by Jews in Constantinople
-Bayezid's son (Selim) forced father to abdicate with help from janissaries
Last Two Centuries
1) What do you think was the biggest factor in the Ottoman siege of Constantinople in 1453?
2)Why do you think the Republic of Turkey switched the capital from Istanbul?
Hattstein, Markus. "The Ottoman Empire." Islam: Art and Architecture. Cologne: Könemann, 2000. 536-544. Print.
Inalcik, Halil. "Mehmed the Conqueror (1432-1481) and His Time." Speculum 35.3 (1960): 408-27. Medieval Academy of America. Web. 12 Nov. 2015.
Najeebabadi, Akbar. "The Ottoman Empire of Turkey." The History of Islam. Vol. 2. Darussalam, 2001. 633-636. Print.
Rozen, Minna. A History of the Jewish Community in Istanbul the Formative Years, 1453-1566. Leiden: Brill, 2010. Print.
Stedman, Beirne. “The Republic of Turkey”. The Virginia Law Register 13.12 (1928): 725–741. Web.
“THE CONSTITUTION OF REPUBLIC OF TURKEY (1961)”. “THE CONSTITUTION OF REPUBLIC OF TURKEY (1961)”.Islamic Studies 2.4 (1963): 467–519. Web.
History and Development
its key position holding two continents and two seas the city was ideally placed for both the Byzantine sovereigns and the Ottoman Sultans.
After the conquest of Constantinople, by Sultan Mehmet II the Turkish architects were faced with a new and major problem to redevelop this capital as an Islamic city.
After conquering the city Mehmet II gave orders to convert Haghia Sophia from a church into a mosque
This changed required the removal of the alter, its bells and plastering over of the Christian mosaics, which were replaced with geometrical designs (complete cube to half dome structure), and four minarets were subsequently added during the period of the Ottoman.
Planning the city
As early as 1453 the Sultan (Mehmet II) had issued orders for the construction of certain buildings without those Ottoman with not be considered a completed city.
1. Citadel within the walls surrounding the golden gate of the Roman city.
2. Royal palace on the hill (Tokapi Palace)
3. Forum Tauri (which is open spaced pubic area) build in the center of the city
4. Huge bazaar with central compact hall for valuable commodity imports
Kulliye and Mosque
Mosque was the central building of kulliye (which complex of religious institutes that comprise of the waqf)
These kulliye served as the civic centres of Istanbul and other cities of the Ottoman Empire, some of these religious institutes include madrasa, the library, hospital, hospice, and monastery for dervishes, school for children and fountain for ablution (wudu
Example of mosque that had a complex kulliye was Suleymaniye mosque.
Çelik, Z. (1993). The remaking of Istanbul: portrait of an Ottoman city in the nineteenth century (No. 2). Univ of California Press.
Fodor’s travel (division of Penguin random house). (2015).Istanbul: history in Architecture. http://www.fodors.com/world/europe/turkey/istanbul/experiences/istanbul-history-in-architecture-2710625.
Inalcik, H. (1990). Istanbul: an Islamic city. Journal of Islamic Studies, 1(1), 1-23.
John, F. (2010). A history of Ottoman architecture. Boston: WIT press.
Lendering J. (2008). Constantinople (Istanbul): Golden gate. http://www.livius.org/cn-cs/constantinople/constantinople_golden_gate.html.
Neci̇poğlu-Kafadar, G. (1985). The Süleymaniye Complex in Istanbul: An Interpretation. Muqarnas, 3, 92-117.
Sansal B. (2006). The golden horn in Istanbul. http://www.greatistanbul.com/golden_horn.html.
Vogt-Goknil. (1966). Living architecture: Ottoman. New York: Grosset and Dunlap.
The structure of the city always been governed by its geographical position between the Sea of Marmara and the golden horn.
City population shrank to 50 000
Mehmed II after conquest of constantiople began to take measures to repopulate
deportation from other areas to populate Istanbul
Until half way in the 15th century there was a majority Christian population
Women and Family Life
History and Development
Late 15th-16th Century
covered bazaar or present day grand bazaar was established by Faith a few years after the conquest.
In the center of the bazaar is the great domed hall known as the old Bedesten, it was one of the original structure surviving from faith’s time.
its present site and covering the almost the same area, although is been through much through time, it is fundamentally the same in structure and appearance as it was when faith first built it.
Golden Gate and citadel
Edmondo Amicis gives us a view of what readers today could not see which was Constantinople in 1877
Ottoman Lyric Poetry provides English translations of 75 lyric poems from the mid-fourteenth to the early twentieth centuries, along with the original Ottoman Turkish texts.
Tom Brosnahan, who is famous for working in the Peace Corps in 1960s’, details his experience while traveling in Turkey: Bright Sun, Strong Tea (2004). Brosnahan is also a writer for Lonely Planet.
William Dalrymple retraces the journey of a monk through the 6th century in eastern Byzantium, starting from Mt Athos, Greece, with stops in İstanbul and Anatolia. It gives an detailed recount of the decline Christian communities
About Ottoman Lyric Poetry
Ottoman lyric poetry is less recognized in the Western world.
Ottoman literature was a source of political movements since the 1400’s until the 21st century
Ottoman literature is very unique, especially because outside nations didn’t influence it as much as the culture within the Ottoman
Poetry was very important to Ottoman Culture
People from all walks of life endeavored to become poets
Ayub al Ansari
a comparison of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), who is believed to have died here when Arabs siege in the city in the 7th century.
Grew into a town outside the wall of Golden Horn
Come Wander Through the City
Yahya Bêy (1582)
Come wander through the city, drink wine from the bowl
Oh ascetic, do the wise run from the tavern door?
When I see those languid eyes, I cry out
The black cloud of my sigh pours tears on our party like hail
That full moon, if she did not rise one night and brighten our hearts
Then would it matter if I-of-the-black-days had never been born from my mother?
Learn how to burn from the moth, oh heart, from the moth
When it sees a shining face, with desire, it sacrifices itself to the flame
Oh poor heart, let me lose my life from waiting
Waiting for my calamity to come from her house in her alluring way
When I sit side by side with that perfect-bodied one, no matter where I am
I make my breast mother of pearl for the sake of that unique jewel
The heart said, “Yahya thieved a kiss from the beloved”
Let it be known this is good news, good news from this crazy heart!
Different type of houses
2. house with larger gardens
3.konaks and villa
1. If you were a sultan in Istanbul where would place your mosque? Why?
a. overlooking the Golden Horn
b. In the heart of the city
Yahya Bêy describes his take on social life in Istanbul
Just the very essence of the night and drinking wine in Istanbul has brought out the best in him
He has let go of all inhibitions like the moth
Istanbul is the unique jewel and he is part of it by wanting to be in the center as the “mother of pearl”
Appreciation of Istanbul in the night is brought into focus
Two factors consider in designing Turkish houses
1.geograpical nature of the region
2. The Islamic custom that women are only allowed to meet men of the family
(The Roman apoditarium) square room covered by dome, and has a fountain at the center.
(tepidarium) mere passageway which usually contains the lavatories.
(Roman calidarium)-> most decorative chamber, belly stone at center which is heated from below or the furnace room.
Hamam (Public bath)
2. Mehmet (II) issued construction of four different structure after his conquest of Istanbul, in your opinion which of the structure was most important for development of the city and if there should be addition of other structure to make the city complete?
Amicis, Edmondo De, and Umberto, Eco. Constantinople. London: Alma Classics, 2010. Print.
Andrews, Walter G., Najaat, Black, and Kalpaklı, Mehmet. Ottoman Lyric Poetry: An Anthology. Austin: U of Texas, 2006. Print.
Dalrymple, William. From the Holy Mountain: A Journey among the Christians of the Middle East. New York: H. Holt, 1998. Print.
Feldman, Walter. "Turkish Literature." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 3 Nov. 2015.
Yilmaz, Kadri H. "Turkish Literature." Journal of Turkish Studies Volume 6 Issue 2.6 (2011): 1115-118. Web.
The hamam along with a mosque and a market, was one of the first buildings built by the Ottoman sultans after the conquest of any urban space.
Mehmed II ordered the construction of beautiful baths shortly after his conquest of Constantinople, to beautify the city s well as met the social and health needs of the people.
The absence of a hamam alluded to the backwardness of a town or a Christian majority
Around the 1820s there was a rough number of 300 hamams in Istanbul.
It was an important aspect of a multi-ethnic and multi-religious space, that was very crucial to the lives of people living in Istanbul.
Functions of the Hamam
Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, who lived in Constantinople in the beginning of the 17th century, after the visit of several Ottoman baths, was quick to state that hamam is “.... the women’s coffeehouse, where all the news of the town is told, scandal invented (...) They generally take this diversion once a week, and stay there at least four or five hours.”
(Boyar & Fleet, 254)
As an important part of many wakf holdings, it was Integral to the economic life of the city.
Both men and women worked in the hamams in various positions as tellaks (bath attend-ants), natırs (attendants in a women’s bath), porters, labourers and stokers in the boiler rooms.
"While cleanliness was central to the Ottoman social make-up. It was where many of the major ceremonies of hamam, the hamam itself was far more than merely a communal bath. It was a social hub, a central pillar of life were celebrated." ((Boyar & Fleet, 258)
-330 CE:Roman emperor Constantine moved
capital of empire from Rome to Asia Minor
-Byzantine capital for more than 1000 years
-Late 10th and Early 11th Century
1204- Crusaders from Western Europe
1300-Osman Ghazi leads troops to displace Seljuks
>becomes first leader of Ottoman dynasty
1347-Black Death kills 1/3 of population
1366-Formation of Janissarries
MEHMED THE CONQUEROR 1451-1481
"Only One Thing I Want: Give Me Constantinople"
-Made the City the Imperial Capital
-Reconstruction of the City
>Builds Mosques, Bazaars, Roads, etc.
-Settled People From Different Provinces (Low Population)
>Invited Christians and Jews to live with religious freedom
FALL OF CONSTANTINOPLE
>Constantine Dies in Battle
Suleyman "The Magnificent"
-Reigned 1520-1566 (longest Ottoman sultan reign)
-Ottoman empire reached Golden Age in his rule
>Art, Literature, Architecture
-Known as Suleyman "The Law Giver" in the East
>His kanuns used centuries after his death
>without interfering with Islamic law, reduced
instances requiring death/mutilation
-Mostly free education to people of Istanbul
>funded by religious foundations
Decline in Ottoman power
>After World War, Turkish Republic established under Mustafa Kemal (secular, democratic country)
>Turkish capital moved fro Istanbul to Ankara
>Population of Istanbul increased dramatically
Until half way in the 15th century there was a majority Christian population under the rule of a minority Muslim population.
The relationship between the sultan and the city was a co-dependant one.
Sultan was viewed as admireable and close to god.
Contrary to western portrayals of the unseen sultan, the Istanbulites were able to bring their grievances to sultan, thus keeping an approachable nature relationship with the sultan.
Mehmed II formed a city , both legally and socially with ideal of coexistence. He brought in a population of Christians, Muslims, and Jews.
Fetvas: Islam based rulings on social or personal issues.
Can non-muslims enlarge or repair churches?
Can muslim neighbours force a non-muslim to move out of the mahalla?
In conclusion: Are mahallas designated living spaces for akin religons?
Are mahallas designated living spaces for akin religons?
Is there agency involved in the decision of where individuals live?
Co-existence of different religions in Istanbul were very much transformed by the population and it isn’t predictable.
This also shows that Muslims, Jews and Christians very much had a choice of where they could live, they were not forced to stay in Muslim only or Christian only areas.
Boyar, Ebru, and Kate Fleet. A Social History of Ottoman Istanbul. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2010. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost). Web. 8 Nov. 2015.
Baer, Marc David. Honored by the glory of Islam: conversion and conquest in Ottoman Europe. Oxford University Press, 1970-2011. Print.
Jennie R. Ebeling , Lynda Garland , Guity Nashat , Eric R. Dursteler . West Asia. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History. Ed Bonnie G. Smith. Oxford University Press, 2008. Brigham Young University , Nov 1, 2010.
Yılmaz, Gülay. The Economic And Social Roles of Janissaries in a 17TH Century Ottoman City: The Case of Istanbul.
Institute of Islamic Studies
. Montreal, 2011.
Freely, John. Istanbul: The Imperial City. New York: Penguin Group, 1996.
Çolak, Hasan. “EXISTENCE and CONFLICT BETWEEN MUSLIMS and NON-MUSLIMS IN THE 16TH CENTURY OTTOMAN ISTANBUL”. Bilkent University: The Institute of Economics and Social Sciences, Sept 2008.
Christian born boys recruited from conquered territories by the Murad II.
Prevented Turkish nobility from being formed that army try to take over.
Also becoming a Janissary elevated the social status of these Christian born youth because instead of serving a lord or a noble they were now part of an elite ottoman military with more power and respect than before.
Recognized as being elite corps for the sultan.
Served as police and firemen
They wanted an increase of pay
Took bribes and bullied the public
Begin playing a big part on ottoman politics and exercising power for their own interests.
Bayezid I and Cemi
Janissaries stormed the city’s walls and once inside they killed the grand vizier and Bayezid I became the sultan.
Their military training had also been cut so they were not as well trained as the earlier corps.
Sultans tried to diminish their power and succeeded in the late 19th century.
Fall of the Janissary Corps
Western portrayals of it as exotic.
Idea of respectability in the eye of the public that caused women to be segregated
Women were frequent users of the justice system, from all social levels to defend their interests and it is shown that judges were very diligent about women’s legal and property rights.
Nurbanu, favorite of Selim II, was key in bringing about the peace that concluded the War of the Holy League in 1573 . (Ebeling et al.)
In the mid-sixteenth century, Hürrem Sultan (known in Europe as Roxelana), the powerful wife of Süleyman the Magnificent, initiated the construction of the Haseki Hürrem Külliye in Istanbul, a complex that included a mosque, several schools, a soup kitchen, a women's hospital, and a bathhouse. (Ebeling et al.)
Conclusion... a word about the 19th century.
Women in the Ottoman empire are consistently depicted as being limited to the home and segregated from society.
This is another example of the obscurity of western portrayal.
This also ignores the significant changes that Ottoman women experienced in the final century of the empire.
The Tanzimat era ( 1839 – 1876 ) marked the beginning of a shift toward a more modern state, inwhcih there were reforms in penalty, property and personal rights, the tax structure, and education.
The first state school for girls opened in 1858.
Marvel comics launches muslim superhero.
1. Why do you think Qadis would allow non-muslims to repair and enlarge their religious buildings, even without the consent of the sultan?
2. Why do you think hamams were so popular a place for people to place wakfs?
kilic Pasha Complex