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Introduction to Programming Languages

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by

Julio Guzman

on 6 March 2015

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Transcript of Introduction to Programming Languages

Introduction to Programming Languages
A programming language is a set of rules that provides a way of telling the computer what operations to perform
A way of communicating an algorithm
Linguistic framework for describing computations
Most common paradigms
Imperative Programming (C)
Object-Oriented Programming (C++)
Logic/Declarative Programming (Prolog)
Functional/Applicative Programming (Lisp)
Two groups
Traditional programming languages:
Sequences of instructions
1st, 2nd & some 3d generation
Special Languages
Scripting languages:
JavaScript
Php
Perl
Phyton
Levels of Programming Languages
Types of programming languages
First generation languages
....
Fifth generation languages
Traditional Languages
COBOL
BASIC
C
Object Oriented Languages
Simula
Smalltalk
JAVA
Phyton
C++
Visual Basic. NET
Ruby
by Julio, Alice et Enrique
representing the
Fablab EEB1 team

English is a natural language. It has words, symbols and grammatical rules
A programming language also has words and rules of grammar, they're called syntax
Each programming language has a different set of syntax rules
Different programming languages are designed for different types of programs
Introduction
First Generation Languages
Machine language
Operands
Operation code
Very efficient but very difficult to write
Second Generation Languages
Assembly languages
Symbolic operation codes replaced binary operation codes.
Assembly language programs needed to be “assembled” for execution by the computer.
Each assembly language instruction is translated into one machine language instruction.
Very efficient code and a bit easier to write
Third Generation Languages
Closer to English
Programs written in source code which must be translated into machine language programs called object code
The translation of source code to object code is accomplished by a machine language system program called a compiler
Alternative to compilation there is interpretation which is accomplished by a system program called an interpreter
Common third generation languages:
FORTRAN
COBOL
C and C++
Visual Basic
Fourth Generation Languages
A high level language (4GL) that requires fewer instructions to accomplish a task than a third generation language.
Used with:
Databases
Query languages
Report generators
Form designers
Application generators
Fifth Generation Languages
Declarative languages Functional(parameter): Lisp, Scheme, SML
Also called applicative
Everything is a function

Logic:
Based on mathematical logic
Rule- or Constraint-based
Object oriented languages:
Objects rather than sequences of instructions
4th, 5th & some 3d generation
Command languages:
sh
csh
bash
Full transcript