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Presentation 19th November 2012 JOUR 3240

Sarah Gamskjaer

on 19 November 2012

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Transcript of Wikileaks

Basically, WikiLeaks is not that different from the brown envelope in which the documents behind the Watergate scandal was delivered.

 However, the power of the brown envelope has been increased a thousand fold to reach far broader than what was ever possible before. The strength of WikiLeaks is its structure being more similar to a network than an actual organisation.
An area of linear transfer of information and data

“… it (read WikiLeaks) is not just a new entrant in the existing media landscape. Its arrival creates a new landscape” Causing harm OR
protecting democracy & transparency? What about national security? The Nos What others think. Can Wikileaks be
taken to court? Within hours, the High Court reversed its stance, and the full story could finally be told by the UK mainstream media. WikiLeaks and
Mainstream Media Terror-organisation or award-winning journalism? Collateral Murder - April 2010:
U.S. Apache helicopter shooting and killing a Reuters photographer and his driver + more than 10 other civilians and seriously wounding two young children

Investigation by the U.S army concludes that the soldiers acted in accordance with the law of armed conflict and the rules of engagement

The video shows something different:
> unprovoked slaying of people Major Leaks: “Transparency is the path towards justice … ”

“… this transparency creates a better society for all people” Questions “An old way of doing things is dying; a new one is being born (…).

The “Age of Transparency” is here: not because one transnational online network dedicated to open information and whistle-blowing named Wikileaks exists, but because the knowledge of how to build and maintain such networks is now widespread”
- E.g. Openleaks and BrusselsLeaks
- Al-Jazeera and The Guardian creating
transnational networks to release The Palestine Papers” Future? International Media
E.g. BBC or Al-Jazeera

Transnational Media
Not physical grounded in one country
No headquarter = no set of national laws to follow WikiLeaks as a Transnational Media Yes!

With its online structure WikiLeaks are certainly a new media based on its very basic definition:

“.. products and services that provide information or entertainment using computers or the Internet, and not by traditional methods such as television and newspapers” Is Wikileaks New Media? One reaction has been commonplace but striking, among supposedly liberal as well as conservative commentary, namely that "government and diplomacy need secrecy" in order to function.

What is extraordinary about this claim is that it is invariably made in complete ignorance of what it is that government is keeping secret. Nanny knows best.

The revelation that government is doing something in private other to what it is claiming in public should be met not by indifference or complacency, but outrage. Independent Diplomat Carne Ross What about national security?

Accountability versus responsibility?

“WikiLeaks, however, is certainly an example of online publishing that should be considered journalism."

“Like those responsible mainstream media publications, WikiLeaks adheres to a rigorous vetting and editing process before publishing data it receives.”

“WikiLeaks is a game-changer, encouraging a scientific approach to journalism, where source documents are provided alongside stories, and empowering the reader to decide if the report is fair and accurate.” WHY IT IS “Legitimate journalism does exist online. WikiLeaks is a shining example of this. It encourages a democratic public discourse that holds our leaders accountable for the war and diplomacy they carry out in our name.
Kate Ausburn, Green Left

“There’s a lot of hair-splitting going on about whether WikiLeaks is journalism or Assange is a journalist. To me that is not a relevant question. WikiLeaks is a publisher; Assange is a publisher.”
Bruce Shapiro, executive director of the Dart Center for Journalism and Trauma at Columbia

We may not like its methods or its leader, but WikiLeaks is a publisher — a new kind of publisher, but a publisher nonetheless — and as such it deserves to be protected from government interference, just like any other member of the traditional or mainstream media.
Matthew Ingram, Gigaom What others think.

"...posting raw information doesn’t cut it."

“Journalism is the hard if-your-mother-says-she-loves-you-check-it-out work of verifying, corroborating, digging up, questioning all parties, putting in context, tracking back to original sources and ruthlessly assaying information."

“Stealing classified information and publishing it for the masses is against the law and should be viewed as such.

“WikiLeaks also failed to remember that ethical and moral responsibilities are the cornerstone of a journalist’s credibility. WHY NOT? “We are fearless in our efforts to get the unvarnished truth out to the public. When information comes in, our journalists analyse the material, verify it and write a news piece about it describing its significance to society.

“We then publish both the news story and the original material in order to enable readers to analyse the story in the context of the original source material themselves.”

“As the media organisation has grown and developed…”

“Publishing improves transparency, and this transparency creates a better society for all people. Better scrutiny leads to reduced corruption and stronger democracies in all society’s institutions, including government, corporations and other organisations. A healthy, vibrant and inquisitive journalistic media plays a vital role in achieving these goals. We are part of that media.”

Won awards:
2008 Economist Index on Censorship Freedom of Expression award 
2009 Amnesty International human rights reporting award (New Media)
2011 Walkley Award (Australia) for outstanding contribution to journalism
for what was described by judges as a global publishing coup that achieved
"justice through transparency". Should Wikileaks be considered Journalism? Merriam Webster Dictionary definition

the collection and editing of news for presentation through the media
the public press
an academic study concerned with the collection and editing of news or the management of a news medium

writing designed for publication in a newspaper or magazine
writing characterized by a direct presentation of facts or description of events without an attempt at interpretation
writing designed to appeal to current popular taste or public interest What is The Supreme Court ruled that this does not violate freedom of speech US Code - Section 793: Gathering, transmitting or losing defense information “Mainstream media will be able to do more to facilitate leakers but they will remain within the traditional framework of the rights and responsibilities that apply in the rest of their coverage.”
--By Charlie Beckett Help The Wall Street Journal uncover fraud, abuse and other wrongdoing.
Send documents to us using a special system built to be secure.
Keep your identity anonymous or confidential, if needed. Assange claims that The Guardian violated this agreement when "Guardian investigations editor, David Leigh, recklessly, and without gaining our approval, knowingly disclosed... decryption passwords in a book published by the Guardian". Wikileaks signed an agreement with The Guardian's Alan Rusbridger. Example: WikiLeaks and the Guardian The full, injuncted report appeared on WikiLeaks

What happened next?
Reporters were banned from revealing Trafigura! Trafigura: attempted to obtain a legal injunction barring them from publishing the story Australian internet activist

Generally described as the founder of
WikiLeaks (Editor-in-chief and director)

Current personal status:
- Ecuador's London embassy
- Sought asylum in June 2012 to avoid
extradition to Sweden over sex crime
allegations Julian Assange Cablegate - November 2010

251,287 Leaked U.S. Embassy cables
Revealing confidential communication between 274 embassies worldwide

15,652 Cables classified “secret”

Unprecedented insight into the U.S government foreign activities

“WikiLeaks has released more classified intelligence documents than the rest of the world press combine” Is Assange protected by the 1st Amendment (United States)?
Hard to say since he is not a U.S. citizen so he may or may not be tried in U.S. court
it is possible to prosecute the sources that leaked information to Wikileaks. Simply publishing the information that he himself did not steal protects Assange from prosecution
Publishing stolen materials is illegal in other countries like The United Kingdom Freedom of Speech and Assange American soldier arrested in 2010 for leaking thousands of cables and reports to Wikileaks
Still being held
First accused of violating the Espionage Act, however he will not be charged under the Espionage Act because he didn't intend to lead the information to U.S. foreign enemies. This was his most serious charge. Who is Bradley Manning? The Guardian, the New York Times, El Pais, Der Spiegel, and Le Monde condemned WikiLeaks for releasing the unedited versions of all 251,000 of the secret U.S. diplomatic cables in its possession.  Why they collaborate? 3. Partnership with
Mainstream Media
In 2009, reporters for the Guardian newspaper and the flagship BBC current affairs program Newsnight obtained a damning report on a 2006 incident centered around the dumping of toxic waste off the Ivory Coast. Mainstream media benefits from WikiLeaks

Example: Oil Giant Trafigura’s Case 2. Reshape Journalism Open System Closed System
The overall new digital communications environment

A period of unprecedented transformation for mainstream media 1. Digital Era Iraq War Logs - October 2010

391,832 Classified U.S military documents on the war in Iraq

Civilian casualty court increased by more than 15,000

“First real glimpse into the secret history of the war” “Our goal is to bring important news and information to the public.

We provide an innovative, secure and anonymous way for sources to leak information to our journalists (..).

One of our most important activities is to publish original source material alongside our news stories so readers and historians alike can see evidence of the truth” What is WikiLeaks? A Not-for-profit organisation

Freedom of Expression

Known by the public as:
A Whistle-blower organisation

Publish Secret and classified infor-
mation which are obtained from
anonymous sources and whistleblowers What is Wikileaks? Use the same technologies like WikiLeaks

(1) Al Jazeera Transparency Unit

(2) WSJ SafeHouse
https://www.wsjsafehouse.com/ 4. Mainstream
Whistle-Blowers By: Samantha, Abigail, Lisa and Sarah WikiLeaks JOUR 3240
19th November 2012 ? http://wikileaks.org/About.html http://wikileaks.org/About.html http://wikileaks.org/About.html Major Leaks: Major Leaks: Told by the soldiers from the U.S army http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/british/new-media http://www.thenation.com/article/154780/wikileaks-and-hacktivist-culture# But is it more? “Now, and from now on, a leaker with domestic secrets has no need of the domestic press, and indeed will avoid leaking directly to them if possible, to escape national pressure on national publishers to keep national secrets.” http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2011/feb/04/wikileaks-created-new-media-landscape Media Change An area of network, co-production, crowdsourcing, citizen journalism etc “… the new news is new because the network creates a new context” "The WikiLeaks model" Will WikiLeaks survive ? ? What is WikiLeaks? WikiLeaks and Mainstream Media Can WikiLeaks be taken to Court? Reactions to Wikileaks Is WikiLeaks New Media? Agenda ? ? ? "That [Pentagon Papers] was not beginning of that question, but an issue that keeps arising from generation to generation, of how far we will permit government restriction on freedom of speech in favor of protection of the country....There's no black-and-white line." -Supreme Court Justice Sonia Sotomayor "Unfamiliar Territory" Wikileaks is a unique case because there is little precedent for it.
It brings up some questions that are not easy to answer: Is it illegal?
If yes, which laws did it break?
Who can be charged?
Should sources be kept confidential?
Is it a national security risk?
...and more Pentagon Papers What are the Pentagon Papers and how do they relate to Wikileaks? Leaked secret government operations and motives during the Vietnam war, even stating the main reason why the war was continued was to prevent U.S. humiliation, not "to help a friend". When Nixon ordered the NYT to stop publishing excepts of the Papers, the NYT appealed and the case reached the Supreme Court in New York Times Co. v. United States (1971) "I don't see why 250,000 diplomatic cables reporting on the views of senior foreign leaders or human rights activists or dissidents--and information that has nothing to do with terrorism--should have been pushed out to some private in the military." -John B. Bellinger, former legal adviser to the State Department and the National Security Council The Espionage Act of 1917 states:
"Whoever, for the purpose of obtaining information respecting the national defense with intent or reason to believe that the information is to be used to the injury of the United States, or to the advantage of any foreign nation....
shall be fined under this title or not imprisoned more than ten years or both." In 2010, the Guardian partnered with WikiLeaks to publish a selection of diplomatic cables that were carefully redacted to protect certain individuals whose names appeared in the correspondence. This time, WikiLeaks, acting independently, chose to publish the documents in their entirety. Past News media is the only platform for accessing topical facts, comment, analysis and debate Now There is no longer any need to wait for the news media to gather,filter and package information Citizens and organizations can transmit and receive it themselves. Background "The material is for review only, and is not to be published without the express consent of Julian Assange or his authorised representative". Reacting to WikiLeaks ? Wikileaks about Us page:

“The government's decisions about whether or how to bring criminal charges against participants in the WikiLeaks disclosures are complicated by the very newness of Julian Assange's Internet-based outfit: Is it journalism or espionage or something in between?”
Pete Yost of The Associated Press

“However, Assange isn't a journalist, either by practice, education or training. He is, in fact, a convicted hacker whose Wikileaks site has operated as a photocopier in publishing everything from soldiers' social security numbers to the names of Afghan informants for United Nations forces. That's not journalism…
David Conley, author of 'The Daily Miracle: An Introduction to Journalism' and a former journalism lecturer at the University of Queensland

“We all need to take Wiki-Leaks for what it is, which is a website dedicated to exposing its version of the truth with no context or thought of the ramifications of its actions. It is not journalism or the future of journalism. “
Jason Stverak, The Washington Times Jason Stverak The Yeses Kate Ausburn Leading on to… "a monstrosity and a criminal act." CONDEMNATION
"They can damage national security, are not in the national interest and, as the US have said, may put lives at risk…"
"Irresponsible leaks like these are deplorable and do not serve anybody's national interests."
"I absolutely condemn the placement of this information on the WikiLeaks website. It's a grossly irresponsible thing to do and an illegal thing to do."  deep concerns over the "damaging action of WikiLeaks" "threat against the authority of a democratic society." UNAFFECTED "Every Israeli leader has known for years that that dispatches are likely to leak out, so we adapted ourselves to the reality of leaks. That has a bearing on who I invite to meetings. No classified Israeli material was exposed by WikiLeaks." "We are ready to give him residence in Ecuador, with no problems and no conditions," SUPPORTIVE "I have to congratulate the people of Wikileaks for their bravery and courage. Clinton should resign, it’s the least she can do with all of this spying and delinquency in the State Department.” “If it is a full-fledged democracy, then why have they put Mr. Assange away in jail? You call that democracy?”
"Enduring national security does not demand secrecy, except where strictly necessary; it demands above all reaffirmation of the most fundamental values that underpin democracy -- transparency, accountability and, perhaps most importantly in this case, participation." Is Wikileaks
New Media
? What is ? ? (Beckett & Ball, p. 132) (Beckett & Ball) (Beckett & Ball, p.158)
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