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ORGAN DONATION: WHO DESERVES THE GIFT OF LIFE?

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Hillary Maryann

on 27 January 2014

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Transcript of ORGAN DONATION: WHO DESERVES THE GIFT OF LIFE?

Seven Pounds in relation to ethics, morals and philosophy
ORGAN DONATION: WHO DESERVES THE GIFT OF LIFE?
A characteristic trait
Ex: Honesty

a person who is virtuous
NEVER
goes against their virtue in any way, shape or form
disproves
of actions against the virtue
Seven Pounds
Key points
Key Ethical Traditions
Principal/Ethical Views of Key Figures
Theoretical Ethical approaches to Organ Donation
Moral arguments, errors and philosophical criteria
George Washington famous for "never telling a lie"
Virtue
Practical Wisdom
Eudaimonia
human’s flourishing in their life, or happiness
true happiness from inside the soul.

person who declares whether they are happy or lived a happy life
Others
cannot
determine whether that person has “flourished”
they witness a part of a person’s life
they are
not
in that person’s shoes
Key Ethical Traditions
Objections against Code of Virtue
immigrants bring new issues
cultural "clash" of virtues
which value set is "right"?
Which set of character traits are considered Virtuous?
Not quite "virtuous", they have a fault
will
break their virtues
for another person's benefit
Ex: White lies to keep another person from knowing the truth that would hurt them
good intentions at heart
Pinocchio's nose grows when he tells any type of lie
Philosophers
Beliefs/views
Impact on Society
moral arguments
Charles Darwin's impact on Ethics
Two main beliefs
-root for human morality lies in social instincts
Ex: social mechanisms triggering evolution such as mating
-the greatest-happiness principle will be a standard for right and wrong
Ex: approve or disapprove of others and themselves
his beliefs were similar to hedonistic utiliarians
Herbert Spencer
Believed in hedonistic Utilitarism like Darwin
moral good can be equated with facilitating human pleasure
Pleasure is achieved by
satisfying self-regarding impulses
satisfying other-regarding impulses
Ex: Eating your favorite food then giving food to others
David Hume
The IS VS. OUGHT Problem in Ethics
Plato's View on Morality
True good is essence of the good
-a form that exists separately from all of the particular examples of good things
One should pursue the highest
good at the expense
of all those

Aristotle's View
"There must be goods that are worth pursuing for their own sake rather than means to some other good" Aristotle, Nichomachean Ethics 1:2
Pros
Cons
-
Morals
Moral beliefs are not just how one happens to feel but beliefs about how one
ought
to feel or act
-character traits you
should
or
should not
possess
Aristole's possible take on organ donation
Organ donation fits under Aristole's first key premise

Circle Of Life Video
Organ Donation
-Pros Vs Cons
-Ethical approach
Similar views to Plato in
Republic
"
Thrasymachus asked Socrates why the strong who are in need of aid, should accept the Golden Rule as a directive for action"
Darwin would prove
humans are biologically inclined t
sympathetic, altruistic & moral
an advantage in the struggle for existence
famously adopted in the 19th century
-suggested that life is a struggle for human beings in order for the best to survive pursue a policy of non-aid for the weak
“to aid the bad in multiplying, is, in effect, the same as maliciously providing for our descendants a multitude of enemies”
-Evolution advances moral good
-evolution is a process with generates value
-moral good was identified with universal human pleasure and happiness
we ought to support it out of self-interest
-we have an egotistical reason for being moral
we want universal happiness


Spencer's answer on: How can we distinguish between good and evil and why should we be good?
His argument was that is and is not are not connected to the argument of ought and ought to
-the change is "imperceptible"
"The thief and murderer follow nature just as much as the philantropist. Cosmic evolution may teach us how the good and evil tendencies of man may have come about; but, in itself, it is imcompetent to furnish any better reason why what we call good is preferable to what we call evil than we had before"
Theory on "final Ends"
-a goal that you pursue for its own sake
-morality consists of knowing what the final ends are and pursuing them
-Religious beliefs may make people uninterested in donating
-Risk in surgery, complications have occured and are increasing
-beliefs on healthcare
-costs of organ donation
-Personal preference
-Not knowing who received the organ
Every human action aims at some good end, some goal or purpose
organ donation, even if you do not know who is receiving the organ, is considered an altruistic action proving that every human action aims at the final end of saving a human life
the movie shows a philosophy of the main character
-he must determine whether the recipient of his organs are "worthy"
-his "tests" are to see whether they are good people
-he purposely kills himself to specifically give his organs to deserving people
He asks for nothing in return, just hopes to see others carry out their lives
Black Market
CNN article describes how many poor people in the middle east instead of getting robbed, get taken
-Most recent cases in Sinai
-They become drugged, then go through surgery while drugged to remove organs
-They are then left to die
Horror story
Wall Street Journal, Article
"A Downside of Organ Donation"
Patient undergoing removing Kidney seemed fine after surgery
-within three months became rehospitalized
-serious infections were non-responsive to treatment
Patient ended up dieing from rare amoeba the hospital did not detect within tests
experts are calling for better testing and tracking of organ donors in order to limit the number of infections
SOURCES
Pleitgen, F. (1970, January 01). Refugees face organ theft in the Sinai. CNN. Retrieved January 25, 2014, from http://www.cnn.com/2011/11/03/world/meast/pleitgen-sinai-organ-smugglers/
Wallis, B. C. (20111, March 31). Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation. Controversies in Organ Donation: The Altruistic Living Donor. Retrieved from http://ndt.oxfordjournals.org/content/16/3/619.full
Landro, L. (2009, December 23). A downside of organ donation. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved January 25, 2014, from http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052748703344704574609960519672346
Schroeder, D. (n.d.). Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Evolutionary Ethics []. Retrieved January 26, 2014, from http://www.iep.utm.edu/evol-eth/
The Power of Yes. (2014, January 25). The Power of Yes. Retrieved from http://www.thepowerofyes.org/
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