(Johann) Carl Friedrich Gauss The Prince of Mathematicians

(April 30th, 1777- February 23rd, 1855) Gauss's Education and Career Gauss's Family Gauss's Legacy Johanna Osthoff

(no image available) Wilhelmine (Minna) Waldeck Gauss Gauss's Parents On April 30th, 1777, Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss was born to the peasant-laborers, Gebhard Dietrich Gauss (father) and Dorothea Benze Gauss. Carl's father died on April 14,1808, and his mother died in 1839. Gauss's Wives and Kids Gauss discovered a great deal of things that will greatly be appreciated by future mathematicians in several different fields of mathematics. After all, making a proof of the prime number theorem, discovering the Method of Least Squares,drawing a heptagon (a seventeen sided polygon), calculating the orbit of a planet, creating the Theory of Curved Surfaces, inventing the heliotrope, creating the unit of magnetism known as a Gauss, inventing the magnometer, and writing proofs of the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra; did not earn Carl Friedrich Gauss the nickname "Prince of Mathematicians" for nothing. On October 9th, 1805, Gauss married Johanna Osthoff. Joseph Gauss was born on August 21st, 1806. Gauss's favorite daughter, Wilhelmine Gauss was born in 1808. Johanna gives birth to her last child, Louis Gauss, in 1809. Louis died on March 1st, 1810 and Johanna died on October 11th, 1809. Joseph died in 1873. Wilhelmine was the last of Gauss's children to accompany her father. She died in 1840. After Johanna died, Gauss married Johanna's friend, Minna Waldeck, on August 4th, 1810. Minna gave birth to Eugene Gauss (July 29th,1811-1896), Wilhelm Gauss (October 23rd, 1813-1879), and Therese Gauss (June 9th, 1816-1864). Bibliography For this project the websites I used were: http://www.nndb.com/people/363/000087102/ http://www.factmonster.com/encyclopedia/people/gauss-carl-friedrich.html The books I referenced were: Math and Mathematicians: The History of Math Discoveries Around the World Volume 1 A-H by Leonard C. Bruno. Profiles in Mathematics: Carl Friedrich Gauss by Krista West Interesting Facts About Gauss At the age of nine or ten Gauss was able to instantly add all the numbers one through one hundred by discovering a pattern in the addition. This is the pattern Gauss discovered to accomplish this amazing feat. 1+100=101

2+99=101

3+98=101

... 50+51=101 Gauss realized that by adding one to the one addend and subtracting one from the other addend without ever repeating any number the sum was always 101. Knowing that you could get this pattern 50 times without any repeated or flipped addition equations. Gauss then multiplied 101 by 50 to get the answer of 5,050. Neither of Gauss's parents had any form of education, but Carl taught himself to read and write by the time he was three. Child Prodigy One day when Gebhard (Carl's father) was busy calculating the weekly payroll for some workers, Carl stood nearby mentally adding and subtracting while his father used the calculator. When Carl suddenly told his father his calculations were wrong, Gebhard checked his work and found that his three year old son was correct. Career Gebhard did not really appreciate Carl's mathematical talents. He wanted Carl to learn a trade like him, because an education wasn't really mandatory back then. Reluctantly, at the age of seven, Gebhard allowed Carl to attend school. Carl started attending grade school at St. Katherine's School in 1784. It was during the first two years of Carl's formal education, while taught by J.G. Buttner, that Carl truly started exhibiting mathematical genius. Buttner recognized that he had a bright young pupil and had advanced textbooks ordered for Carl. Carl even got to work with a tutor named Johann Christian Martin Bartels. Carl quickly excelled beyond his tutor's capability to teach. Buttner and Bartels convinced Gebhard Gauss to let Carl study in the evenings, even though Gebhard had already arranged for Carl to spin flax into yarn in the evenings. .. Education .. .. In 1788, Gauss entered a college preparatory school called the Gymnasium Catharineum, with help from Buttner and Bartels. Here Gauss learned High German and was so advanced in math he didn't have to attend his professor meetings.

Carl enrolled at the Collegium Carolinum this same year. Carl met the duke of Brunswick, Charles William Ferdinand, in 1791. The duke was a supporter of academics and the arts, and after meeting such a bright young mathematician, he granted Carl a yearly allowance of ten thalers (that was probably a lot of money back then) to cover living expenses and tuition at the Collegium Carolinum.

In 1792, Carl began refining his Latin and Greek, studying the history of math (mainly the works of Leonhard Euler, Joseph Louis Lagrange, and Isaac Newton), and learning about the recent research done in the field of mathematics (which helped Carl develop a firm understanding of what was known of the world of mathematics. Carl discovered the Method of Least Squares during his last year at the Collegium Carolinum. .. Gebhard was honest and had a good reputation, but he could also be strict and harsh. Dorothea was intelligent, witty, and was observant of Carl's genius. Gauss began attending the University of Gottingen, which was in Hanover, Germany, in 1795. At first, the duke didn't like the idea of Gauss leaving Brunswick, but the university was a good choice for exploring science and modern math. While at the University of Gottingen, Gauss was finally admitted as a mathematics student. However, Gauss still couldn't decide whether he wanted to be a mathematician or a philologist. Thankfully, the university's library had a large number of books for a huge range of interests. At the university Gauss developed a reputation for being a critic of lecturing professors because he wasn't impressed with their knowledge of math. Gauss started compiling his thoughts and ideas in a notebook he named Notizenjournal (German for "Diary of Notes"). In 1798, after completing three years at the University of Gottingen, Gauss left without a degree, unemployed, homeless, and uncertain where his life would take him next.

Gauss went to the University of Helmstedt in 1799 and on July 16th, 1799, he received his doctoral degree without having to take the oral examination. Gauss now had a notebook full of new mathematical ideas... Notizenjournal Entries Gauss drew a heptadecagon using a straight edge and a compass in 1796. The heptadecagon is a circular, seventeen-sided polygon. Gauss discovered the principles the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra was based on, in 1797. He made his first proof of this theorem in 1799. Gauss didn't publish his second proof of the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra, until 1815. His third proof was published in 1816. Gauss published his fourth, and final, proof in 1848. Gauss was beginning to develop an idea of non-Euclidean geometry, in 1796, by assuming that classic geometry was sometimes wrong. Other Things Gauss Did Gauss made a formula to calculate the orbit of a planet. Astronomers used this formula to relocate the planet Ceres, in 1802. Modern number theory was started by "Disquisitiones Arithemeticae" (German for "Discourses on Number Theory"), which Gauss published in 1802. In 1807, Gauss began teaching classes at the Gottingen observatory, which didn't appeal to him. With the observatory being a useful tool for research, Gauss was able to write a book called "Theoria Motus" ("Theory of Motion"), that summarized his astronomical work. Gauss invented the heliotrope (an instrument used to reflect the sun's rays over a long distance in order to survey or map land), in 1821. It wasn't until 1819 when Gauss finally published his Method of Least Squares. With the help of William Weber, Gauss invented the first telegraph. In 1836, Gauss invented a bifilar magnetometer. He also created a new unit of magnetism called a guassmeter. .. .. .. Calculating the date of Easter was one of Gauss's earliest accomplishments. Since Easter is on a different day each year since it's always on the first Sunday, after the first full moon, after the beginning of spring. Once Gauss figured out the dates of the first full moon and when spring began, he was able to calculate the date of Easter. This is the formula Gauss used:

Year divided by four, y/4=a

Year divided by seven, y/7=b

Year divided by seven, y/7=c

19c+M/30=d

2a+4b+6d+N=e

22+d+e= Date in March

d+e-9= Date in April Once Gauss knew the date of Easter in 1777, he counted 32 more days on the calender, because he was born eight days before the Ascension, which was 40 days after Easter to get the date of his birth. This is how Gauss figured out he was born on April 30th, 1777. In 1849, Gauss's Gottingen friends and colleagues held a celebration to honor Gauss's doctoral degree, which he received fifty years ago, in order to honor his life's work. Gauss attended and even gave a scientific lecture. In 1822, Gauss won the Copenhagen University Prize. Gauss received the Copley Medal from the Royal Society of London in 1838. .. (first wife) (second wife) by Raimi Sarnoff Kalbach

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# Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss

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