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Earth and Space Science: Technologies

Made by: Isabella Iampietro, Christine Dorado, and Amanda Radanovic.
by

Christine Dorado

on 12 February 2014

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Transcript of Earth and Space Science: Technologies

photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli
Technologies
Unit 4: Earth and Space Science
Spectroscopes
Acts as prism that allows light to be separated.
Satellites
Probes
a space vehicle sent to other celestial bodies
Robotic Devices
Rovers: Devices programmed to carry out tests on distant planets
Red Shift
Red shift: the change of wavelength due to an object moving farther away
Parallax to measure distance
Optical (Reflecting) Telescopes:
uses lens to collect and focus light to magnify view by using mirrorslens at the end of the telescope take in light and project the image to the eyepiece
can see more in celestial bodies than an optical telescope
collects wavelengths longer than light and infrared radiation wavelengths
radio signals focused on a receiver (similar to a satellite) then signals are converted into data
many can be electronically connected to be used as one large telescope, like optical telescopes
Telescopes
The First Telescope was made in 1608 by Hans Lippershey.
Non-Optical Telescopes:
designed to view wavelengths not visible to the human eye (radio waves, gamma waves, and X rays)
must be sent into space due to earth's atmosphere blocking some electromagnetic radiation
Chandra X-Ray Observatory
Radio Telescopes:
Messier 51 taken by radio telescope (http://www.nrao.edu/index.php/learn/radioastronomy/)
Each light that is separated depending on their wavelength
red

being the slowest wavelength and

purple

being the fastest
any body that orbits around another body in space
small probes made to land on distant planets, explore the surface, do experiments (geology, meteorology, and biology)
programmed to solve many problems by themselves due to the time it takes to transmit radio signals to earth and back
work all day in intense temperatures then rest for a short while to conserve battery
PARALLAX: apparent shift of an object against a stationary background caused by the change in position of the observer.
nearby star viewed from earth appears to shift against the sky (distant stars)
observations from 2 different places measures angles of sight from a baseline, then calculates the distance by using triangulation
Scientists use red shift to be able to detect the direction of a star.
When the wavelength is towards the red end, that means that the star is moving away showing that the universe is still expanding
TRIANGULATION: a technique for determining the distance to a visible object by creating an imaginary triangle between the observer and the and the object, then calculating the distance.
The Moon orbiting Earth is an example of Earths natural satellite
Satellites are electronic devices put in orbit around Earth used to relay information
Geosynchronous orbit: when a satellite used for communications is stationed above a fixed on Earth, and orbiting at the same rate, making it look like it isn't moving
An example of this is TV satellites, the ground-based satellite dishes are pointed at the transmitting satellite
Satellites are also used, though remote sensing, to track migrating salmon, monitor forest fires, calculate the depths of oceans and measure ground movement to predict earthquakes/ volcanic eruptions
Remote sensing is a technique of collecting info about Earth by sensing the planet from up above
baseline
distant object
angles
the longer the baseline, the more accurate the calculation will be (for triangulation)
triangles with long baselines have small angles which are easier to measure and record
for this reason, astronomers wait almost half a year to measure a triangle using a baseline as big as earth's orbit to get the most accurate results
They are designed to travel millions of kilometers, carrying scientific instruments to analyze distant objects in space
Voyager 1, one of the most successful American space probes
Probes may fly past, orbit, or land on a planet, moon, comet, or asteroid and send back information about its features and atmosphere
Spirit and Opportunity are the most recent rovers sent to Mars in January, 2004. They were sent there for a 3 month mission, but they still continued to test until 2010.
All the planets in our solar system have been visited by a probe
The New Horizons probe was launches in 2006 and is set for Pluto. It is expected to reach there in 2015
The fact that space probes do not need a crew takes away the risk to human life
Today probes continue to send back information from the farthest parts of our solar system
Spirit
CANADARM: used to retrieve and launch satellites, provide stable platform for astronauts
CANADARM 2: moved loads, docked shuttles, repaired and did what the first canadarm did
made for the international space station
able to move by itself, controlled with a remote control
can reach all surfaces of the space station on the outside
MADE BY
Amanda Radanovic
Christine Dorado
Isabella Iampietro
Full transcript