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Oliver Twist: Industrialization
Transcript of Oliver Twist: Industrialization
The process in which a society
transforms itself from a primarily agricultural
society into one based on the
manufacturing of goods and services.
Advantages and Disadvantages
Creation of wealth for others
Decline of quality of life due to urbanization
Urbanization also leads to environmental pollution
Poor working conditions
Effect on the City and City life
Oliver Twist: Industrialization
By: Pranu, Prabhjot, Poojan
Businesses that were not Industrialized
The Industrial Revolution brought new employment.
Factories were built to house the new machinery.
The difficult working conditions were made worse by poor living conditions
Child Labour was popular
Effect on Population
Poor Law: The Poor Laws were created to destroy the relief programs. The Poor Laws generated a system of workhouses. They gave food, clothes however mistreated these poor workers
Industrialization created two new classes, the capitalist and the working classes.
shows how the emerging industrialized society Oliver lived in contributes to the slums in the early days of a new industrialized world.
Victorian society interpreted economic success as a sign that God favored the honest and interpreted the condition of poverty as a sign of the weakness
Prior to the Industrial Revolution manufacturing was done in people’s homes, using hand tools
The second World War led to a great deal of industrialization which resulted in the growth a of suburbs.
Also, the Industrial Revolution took place in Britain during the 18th and 19th centuries.
Westerners ego went up due to technological differences
Society has only two classes of people: the bourgeoisie and the proletariat.
The bourgeoisie = owners and proletariat are the workers.
The bourgeoisie exploit workers. The owners pay them and the workers "think" they are well off. Marx thought that as rich grew richer the workers would rebel= this did not come true
Weber argued that owning property, such as factories or equipment, is only part of what determines a person’s social class.
Wealthy people tend to be more powerful
Davis & Moore
In any society, a number of tasks must be accomplished. Those who perform the difficult tasks are therefore entitled to more power, prestige, and money. Davis and Moore believed that an unequal distribution of society’s is necessary
Tumin found that gender and the income of an individual’s family were more important than ability
The results of Industrialization led to a mixture of all
these socialist's ideologies; however close to Tumin's ideologies
Spinners and weavers (the textile industry was big)
Miners (to get coal)
Transporters (coal was needed everywhere)
Many machines were invented to make the farmers' lives easier such as the plough, and seeding drills
New Technology produced greater amounts of crops for the increasing population
The amount of human labour needed decreased
More and more workers were able to go into factory and mining jobs.
Despite industrialization and urbanization, Agriculture remained a principal provider for employment
Child labor was fundamental to factories, mills and mines in England.
Child labor was the cheapest labor of all.
Children did not join unions or go on strike.
Most of the children were sickly, small, barefoot, and wore tattered clothing.
Children were paid less than adults (even less than women), but did similar.
As industrialization occurred, the middle class emerged.
They had money and had money left over for other leisure goods.
Most moved away from the cities because they thought the "slum" was unhygienic and unpleasant.
Majority of the people living in industrialized areas lived in terrible, harsh conditions because of the lack of money and the overwhelming population.
Five to nine people lived in a single room which was as big as an apartment. Not only was there not enough room, but more people got sick as well.
diseases spread rapidly and lack of medicine and medical care resulted in many deaths.
No laws were in place to protect the rights of the workers
Extremely long hours of labour
Very hot and exhausting environments
Dangerous machinery was not fenced off
Many kids were forced to work between machines because they were small enough to fit
Mortality Rates were very high in factories
Mining had one of the worst environments, workers were bent over the whole day which caused back problems
Weren't technologically advanced
Weren't able to make as much money
Profits were very low
Usually just turned to farming
- Youngest member of the family who opened and closed the doors of the mines (12 hour shifts)
Before the Industrial revolution, 2 types of mines existed; bell pits and drift mines. These were small scale mines used for home and local industry used.
However, when industrialization started more coal was needed to power steam engines, furnaces, and other machinery.
Mines were held up by wooden beams
Dangerous environment as a spark from a miner's axe could result in deaths of many miners and a poisonous gas was also found underground
The Hurrier and the Thruster
- Generally older kids and women pulled and pushed tubs full of coal on roadways from the coal face to the pit-bottom. The tubs were about 60 kg and had to be moved on roadways about 60 to 120cm high
- Oldest and strongest members of the family that cut out the coal with a pickaxe.
Reference to Book
"So they established the rule that all poor people should have the alternative (for they would compel nobody, not they) of being starved by a gradual process in the house, or by a quick one out of it."
"As Mr. Gamfield did happen to labour under the slight
imputation of having bruised three or four boys to death already" 21