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research methods psychology

for my revision
by

alex leavy

on 6 January 2013

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Transcript of research methods psychology

for psychology A2 Research Methods Naturalistic- behaviour not manipulated LAb: controlled environment often lacks mundane realism Repeated measures:
each participant takes part in both activities
order effects, may guess purpose
Directional- predicting one condition better than the other correlation coefficient- numerical measure of relationship between co-variables scattergram- correlation graphically It is a study of a single person, institution or an event Experiments and Hypotheses Experimental design Lab, field, natural experiments observation case studies studies using correlational analysis validity selection Rich data- unusual insights into rare cases Problems: generalisation, research bias, ethical issues (privacy, confidentiality) Genie- positive- increase together negative- one increases, the other decreases most relationships are linear curvilinear is a complicated relationship Controlled- some variables can be controlled content analysis- indirect observation of behaviour Observational design structured and un-structured behavioural categories- checklist, rating sampling-events and times participant and non-participant overt and covent Field: natural environment but IV controlled by controlled by experimenter, control more difficult, ethical issues Natural: IV varies naturally, doesnt show cause-and-effect because participants not randomly allocated to conditions Extraneous variables can be controlled in all 3 Independent group:
participants only do one activity
no control of variables matched pairs:
pairs are matched in terms of key variables. one goes in one group, the other goes in the other group.
time consuming, cant control all variables COUNTERBALANCING - ABBA - control order effect Non- directional -no direct prediction Hypotheses must be operationalised - in detail Opportunity:
getting people who are around at the time
easy but bias volunteer:
self selected, volunteers make up sample
varied but volunteer bias
random:
every member of the target population has the same chance of being in the sample
unbias in theory, but not in practice
how true something is Mundane realism: mirroring the real world. low when control is high Generalisability: is it true to the real world. control and realism Internal validity: what goes on inside the study. control, realism External validity: what goes on outside a study. ecological validity External validity: high for naturalistic. Internal validity: depends on behavioural categories reliability: can it be repeated ethical issues: informal consent, privacy and confidentiality extraneous variables Participant variables affect independent groups. age, gender, personality, IQ situational variables: order effect, time of day, temp, noise, investigator effect, demand characteristics. be dealt by standard procedures/ double blind participant effects: hawthorne effect, social desirability bias. dealt by single blind/ increase experimental realism Quantitative and Qualitative data Quantitative data: numbers. easy to analyse. oversimplifies life Qualitative data: words, lists, opinions, examples. represents complex thoughts. more difficult to analyse measures of central tendency: mode, mean, mode measures of dispersion: range dealing with ethical issues ethical guidelines-BPS code of ethics ethics committees cost- benefits analyze punishment presumptive consent
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