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research methods psychology
Transcript of research methods psychology
each participant takes part in both activities
order effects, may guess purpose
Directional- predicting one condition better than the other correlation coefficient- numerical measure of relationship between co-variables scattergram- correlation graphically It is a study of a single person, institution or an event Experiments and Hypotheses Experimental design Lab, field, natural experiments observation case studies studies using correlational analysis validity selection Rich data- unusual insights into rare cases Problems: generalisation, research bias, ethical issues (privacy, confidentiality) Genie- positive- increase together negative- one increases, the other decreases most relationships are linear curvilinear is a complicated relationship Controlled- some variables can be controlled content analysis- indirect observation of behaviour Observational design structured and un-structured behavioural categories- checklist, rating sampling-events and times participant and non-participant overt and covent Field: natural environment but IV controlled by controlled by experimenter, control more difficult, ethical issues Natural: IV varies naturally, doesnt show cause-and-effect because participants not randomly allocated to conditions Extraneous variables can be controlled in all 3 Independent group:
participants only do one activity
no control of variables matched pairs:
pairs are matched in terms of key variables. one goes in one group, the other goes in the other group.
time consuming, cant control all variables COUNTERBALANCING - ABBA - control order effect Non- directional -no direct prediction Hypotheses must be operationalised - in detail Opportunity:
getting people who are around at the time
easy but bias volunteer:
self selected, volunteers make up sample
varied but volunteer bias
every member of the target population has the same chance of being in the sample
unbias in theory, but not in practice
how true something is Mundane realism: mirroring the real world. low when control is high Generalisability: is it true to the real world. control and realism Internal validity: what goes on inside the study. control, realism External validity: what goes on outside a study. ecological validity External validity: high for naturalistic. Internal validity: depends on behavioural categories reliability: can it be repeated ethical issues: informal consent, privacy and confidentiality extraneous variables Participant variables affect independent groups. age, gender, personality, IQ situational variables: order effect, time of day, temp, noise, investigator effect, demand characteristics. be dealt by standard procedures/ double blind participant effects: hawthorne effect, social desirability bias. dealt by single blind/ increase experimental realism Quantitative and Qualitative data Quantitative data: numbers. easy to analyse. oversimplifies life Qualitative data: words, lists, opinions, examples. represents complex thoughts. more difficult to analyse measures of central tendency: mode, mean, mode measures of dispersion: range dealing with ethical issues ethical guidelines-BPS code of ethics ethics committees cost- benefits analyze punishment presumptive consent