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Active Distribution Networks and Microgrids

Expert Talk in a training program at Nirma Institute of Technology

Kalpesh Joshi

on 10 February 2016

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Transcript of Active Distribution Networks and Microgrids

Real Power Management
Microgrid - Real life example
Control and Dispatch of Real and Reactive Power
Active Distribution Networks & Microgrids

Kalpesh Joshi

Presented by
Distribution systems / Sub-Transmission systems
Voltage level - Up to 33 kV in Indian context
Small to medium DERs - Up to 20 MW

Steady State issues
Control and Operations
Protection against faults

Power Quality issues
Voltage fluctuations/flickers
Harmonic analysis
If you can't explain it simply,
you don't understand it well enough.
Microgrid Primer
Size of Microgrids
Image Sources (IS)
Video Sources (VS)
Articles & Other Sources (AOS)
A microgrid is a group of interconnected loads and distributed energy resources within clearly defined electrical boundaries that acts as a single controllable entity with respect to the grid.

A microgrid can connect and disconnect from the grid to enable it to operate in both grid-connected or island-mode.
Operational Issues
Energy losses, Feeder voltage profile, Power factor management,

Integrated Volt-VAr Control (IVVC)
Peak Demand Management through CVR

Power management for Microgrid
Storage sizing for Microgrid

Case studies and Innovations
Note: Credits are cited as a code near all the texts, images and video clips.
The list of code for cited sources is attached at the end of this presentation.
Vertical axis wind turbines
Prof M Shahidehpour, IIT
Microgrid at IIT, Illionis
Offers an opportunity to shift control burden to the local owner/operator

Control is easier at the microgrid level than grid level

Addresses customer-specific needs based on local requirements

Offers distribution-level demand response and offsets capacity addition simply for peaking

Can make power systems resilient/Self-healing
Uncertainty handling, Energy storage systems, Protection system coordination, Communication protocols, Standards, Advance control and dispatch startegies
time-series analysis
to model diurnal variations in generation and demand

New modeling, monitoring and control strategies to plan, maintain & operate the distribution grid

Need to simulate the
secondary distributio networks
to model voltage at the meter
Effect on feeder voltage profile, voltage fluctuations/flickers

Effect on avarage power factor and energy losses

Effect on number of Tap Changing Operations (TCOs)
of Voltage Regultors (VRs), OLTCs and switched capacitors
CVR Factor - Utility Perspective
Feeder Load 7.5 MVA max.
Length: 3.36 miles
Load Class: 61% Commercial,
39% Residential
PV Plant: 7.5 MVA
S/s Transformer with LTC
LTC Operations by Month, Base Case and With PV, 9-Month Simulation
Device Operation Comparisons, Base Case and PV case, 9-month Simulation
Due to the phase unbalance in the feeder, aggregation of PV, and load variations, Phase-B experienced considerably more tap operations with PV than the other phases, with a total increase of 10 tap operations. On the other hand, Phase-C experienced fewer less tap operations with PV during the middle of the day than the other phases. This highlights the importance of not only considering the time-varying nature of the load and PV, but also the inherent unbalance associated with most distribution systems.
Prof John Dabiri, CalTech
ADNs and Microgrid
We will look into...
Scope of the talk...Defining boundaries
Microgrid - Benefits & Issues
Academic Researcher's view
Utility Engineer's view
Improved reliability by introducing self-healing at the local distribution network

Higher power quality by managing local loads

Reduction in carbon emission by the diversification of energy sources

Higher economic incentives by reducing T&D costs and utilization of less costly renewable energy sources

Higher energy efficiency by responding to real-time market prices
Effect of Increasing DER Penetration
Microgrid Network at IIT, Illionis
Local Generation at IIT, Illionis
Need of the hour
Time-Series Power Flow Analysis
Simulated Network
PV variability can have a more significant impact on distribution system LTC’s for a weaker grid when the substation voltage fluctuates more with changes to the load and when there are fewer feeders on the transformer so that one feeder has more impact.
IEEE 8500 Node Test Network
In order to analyze the impact of DERs on distribution network operations, not only that the sequential time simulations are required but also the 3-phase detailed modeling of all the network components is necessary.

DER impact varries case-by-case
For Energy Efficiency
Microgrid Reliability & Economic Indices
Efficiency in campus electricity use
50% peak demand reduction
20% permanent demand reduction
Improved resilience to disasters
Valuation of perfect power
Savings in outage costs
Deferral of planned substations
Replicable at larger scale
Living Laboratory for the promotion of energy efficiency in cleaner cities
Stages of Simulation for MG Management
Multi-Agent System Architecture
Designing MAS - SNL Experience
Goal: Design a distributed agent-based system that enables elements of a microgrid to cooperate not only with one another, but also with other agents operating other microgrids.
The decisions to be made are, essentially: which resources to use to satisfy load requirements under a given set of conditions, what actions to take under various conditions of rapid change, and with whom and in what manner to interact in order to make these decisions with the appropriate authority.
'Four Tent' Microgrid
Agent Communication Network
Lessons Learnt - SNL
Much work remains to construct trustworthy, deployable agent systems with the breadth, depth, and fault tolerance to manage distributed infrastructures. This statement stands despite the contributions of many towards designing and building relevant agents.
Need to pay attention to following tasks:

Construct a set of use cases that captures the full functional requirements of an agentbased power management system

Build and demonstrate a system capable of executing the extended set of use cases

Select from the literature, or otherwise discover, the best algorithms for system functions, particularly fault isolation and recovery, and integrate these into our framework

Select from the literature, or otherwise discover, the best algorithms for system functions, particularly fault isolation and recovery, and integrate these into our framework
Power Factor & Peak Demand in an ADN - A Case Study
Contracted Demand: 350 kW
Connected Load: Around 650 kW
SS Transformers:
2 Units - Similar
250 kVA, 11/0.415 kV
PV Plants:
Polycrystalline Mosules: 114 kWp
Thin Film CIS Modules: 9.6 kWp
Polycrystalline Mosules: 10.14 kWp
3-Phase Banks
Each bank rated at 25 kVAr
11 Units
Effect of PV Generation on pf
Time-Series Power Flow Analysis
Full transcript