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Transcript of Otzi
Where was Otzi found?
What do we know about his age, gender religion and cause of death
Describe Physical characteristics or marks on the mummy
Otzis hair was wavy and shoulder length.
He had a beard.
DNA tests revealed he had brown eyes.
He weighed 50 kg.
He was slim
He had blue tattoos
Scientist found they weren't decorative.
Describe the artifacts, what do they reveal?
Otzi was found near Hasbjoch in the Otzal alps.
He was found on September 19, 1991.
Many people claim discovering him first.
He was found by the Erika and Helmut Simon two german hikers.
Erika and Helmut Simon had a lawsuit for recognition and money.
He was found at 10,500 feet.
He was on the border of Italy and Austria.
Otzi in the Glacier
Otzi was frozen to the glacier.
He looked as if he had lied down for a nap.
Usually being trapped in a glacier creates 'grave wax'.
Otzi was dried and leathery, making it seem he had been dried before buried in snow.
He was about 45 ,they could tell by his bone structure.
He was a male.
He was part of the first Alpine cultural group.Which was Tamins-Carasso-Isera 5.
Cause of Death
He was shot from behind. The arrow pierced a major artery. He also had blunt force trauma to the head. He most likely died of loss of blood because of his arrow wound. But the blunt force trauma may have killed him as well.
What they found on his dead body
Marks from arrow wound on his left shoulder.
Bruises and cuts on his hands and chest.
He had blunt force trauma.
Missing his last pair of ribs.
He had fractures on both sides of his body.
He was missing his wisdom teeth.
Otzi had with him a crude ax.
It is able to fell a yew tree in 35 minutes.
It is made with yew.
It may have been a symbol of rank.
First ever complete ancient axe found.
The copper was tied to the shaft with strips of leather.
The axe showed scientists how they were progressing in the stone age. It also showed them how people in Otzi's time already knew how to melt copper
It was found that otzi had intestinal parasites.
The birch medicine was very helpful with such conditions.
Proves his culture knew every use of plants and stone.
Made from deer antler.
Used it to sharpen dull edges.
He leaned his bow against a rock before he died.
He hadn't finished his bow.
The supporting structure of Otzi's quiver had been broken three times during Otzi's life
He decorated it with leather
The arrows weren't made by the same person
Some were for right some to left
This revealed that Otzi didn't make both
Bow, Quiver, and Arrows
Dagger and sheath
Otzi tied it with sinew
Was woven from lime bast
The dagger had great quality
Otzi carried his possessions in his backpack
Only pieces of the wood and string were discovered
This reveals he was away from home
What has Otzi revealed about his society
That his society had figured out how to heat copper
The healing properties of fungus had already been discovered
He lived in a rich community to be able to afford copper
Bronze age people were developing technology and using natural resources efficiently
His society had access to natural minerals
What other facts have scientists concluded
He was shot by someone he knew.
His birth place was somewhere near present day Feldthums.
He drank water twelve hours before he died from a mountain stream near Katharinaberg.
He died in a battle.
He died between March and June.
His family had considerable status.
He had traces of lime disease.
His closest relatives would be from Sardinia.
He had heart disease.
What technology has been used
Sophisticated Automatic Refrigeration System
DNA test and samples
Botanists: Look through gut content to see what he ate
Archeologists: Discovered Otzi and removed him from the ice
Radiologists: Used x-ray's and CAT scans to see how Otzi died.
Paleontologists: Found the origins and facts about Otzi
Anthropologists: Discovered religious beliefs and cultural development while he lived
Sculptors: Sculpted him to see what he looked like
Ecologists: Study Otzi's realtionships.
What roles do people play?
What remains unanswered?
Who killed Otzi?
What was his original name?
Why did they remove the arrow shaft?
Where was he going?
Was he on the run?
What were the tattoo's for?
Why was he killed?
Were the arrow wounds fatal?
Why wasn't his bow finished?
Who made the other arrows?
http://www.archaeologiemuseum.it/f06 ice uk.html
Frozen Man, David Getz
NOVA Iceman Murder Mystery