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Transcript of LGBT
The Overview of History, Cultural View, and Legalization
Modern LGBT History in US
Celebrities Life You Might Not Know...
Sir Ian Mckellan
Started to use since 1990, replacing LGB, and "gay" at 1980's
from Wesleyan University
Europe LGBT History
9660 to 5000 BCE: Mesolithic rock art in Sicily depicts phallic male figures in pairs that have been interpreted as male homosexual.
Nyankh-khnum and Khnum-hotep: Two high officials served under pharaoh Niuserre during the 5th Dynasty (c. 2494–2345 BC)
630-612 BCE: Sappho, a Greek lyric poet born on the island of Lesbos
Warren Cup: Roman silver drinking cup decorated in relief with two images of male same-sex acts, made in 1st century CE.
Before 4th Century: homosexuality was allowed
After 4th Century: homosexuality started to be banned
Council of Ancyra (314, now Ankara, Turkey): excluded the Sacraments for 15 years to unmarried men under the age of 20 who were caught in homosexual acts.
Roman (342): The first law against same-sex marriage was promulgated by the Christian emperors Constantius II.
(390): Valentinian II, Theodosius I and Arcadius declared homosexual sex to be illegal and those who were guilty of it were condemned to be burned alive in front of the public
France (1260): First-offending sodomites lost their testicles, second offenders lost their member, and third offenders were burned.
Since the foundation of Poland in 966, Polish law has never defined homosexuality as a crime. After regained its independence and in 1932, Poland codified the equal age of consent for homosexuals and heterosexuals at 15.
French Revolution (1791) and Napoleonic wars (1803-1815), homosexuality was decriminalised.
Nevertheless, gay men and lesbians continued to live closeted lives, since moral and social disapproval by heterosexual society remained strong across Europe for another two decades, until the modern gay rights movement began in 1969.
What causes the gay marriage being legalized?
Product of the decades of activism
that made the idea of gay marriage seem
plausible, desirable, and right.
“The more we get married, the more normal we seem. And the more normal we seem, the more human we seem, the more our equality seems obviously important.”
1993: US president Bill Clinton signed Don’t ask, Don’t tell (DADT) act.
1996: Enacted Defense of marriage act (DOMA) stop federal government from recognizing same-sex marriage.
But Massachusetts allows same sex marriage. This is followed by other states until 37/50 states before the legalization of the US same sex marriage act.
18, December 2010: the U.S. Senate votes 65 to 31 in favor of repealing DADT, the Clinton-era military policy that forbids openly gay men and women from serving in the military. Barack Obama cancel the DADT.
26, June 2013: Supreme Court rules that the 1996 Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) is unconstitutional. In a 5 to 4 vote, the court rules that DOMA violates the rights of gays and lesbians. (Thanks to Edith Windsor)
26, June 2015: “The Court, in this decision, holds same-sex couples may exercise the fundamental right to marry in all States.”
US vs Windsor
Married Spyer in 1967, not yet legalized.
Married again in Toronto, Canada on May 22, 2007, legalized.
Spyer's death on February 5, 2009, Windsor became the executor and sole beneficiary of Spyer's estate.
Required to pay $363,053 in federal estate taxes on her inheritance of her wife's estate.
Barred from doing so by Section 3 of the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA).
On November 9, 2010, Windsor filed a lawsuit against the federal government in the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York, seeking a refund because DOMA singled out legally married same-sex couples for "differential treatment compared to other similarly situated couples without justification.”
On June 26, 2013, the U.S. Supreme Court issued a 5–4 decision declaring Section 3 of DOMA to be unconstitutional "as a deprivation of the liberty of the person protected by the Fifth Amendment."
1791: Revolutionary France (and Andorra) adopts a new penal code which no longer criminalizes sodomy. First West European country to decriminalize homosexual.
1811: Netherland as 1st nation in 19th century to decriminalizes homosexual acts.
1972: Sweden became the first country in the world to allow people who were transsexual by legislation to surgically change their sex and provide free hormone replacement therapy.
1973: The American Psychiatric Association declassified homosexuality as a mental disorder.
1975: American Psychological Association.
2001: First law providing for marriage of people of the same sex in modern times was enacted in 2001 in the Netherlands.
Countries that legalized same sex marriage
1. The Netherlands (2001)
2. Belgium (2003)
3. Canada (2005)
4. Spain (2005)
5. South Africa (2006)
6. Norway (2009)
7. Sweden (2009)
8. Argentina (2010)
9. Iceland (2010)
10. Portugal (2010)
11. Denmark (2012)
12. Brazil (2013)
13. England and Wales (2013)
14. France (2013)
15. New Zealand (2013)
16. Uruguay (2013)
17. Luxembourg (2014)
18. Scotland (2014)
19. Finland: (signed 2015, effective 2017)
20. Ireland: (2015)
21. US: (2015)
1924: Henry Gerber’s society for Human Rights in Chicago.
1st homosexual organization documented in America.
1969: stonewall riots
Turning points for Gay liberation
Police raided gay/transgender bars
Large group of GBT Americans with the organized gay rights movement rioted for 3 days.
More gay liberations created after this
Gay Liberation Front (GLF)
Gay Activists Alliance
28th June 1970: 1st national gay rights march in Washington, D.C, around 100k people.
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) rights in the Netherlands have been some of the most progressive in Europe and worldwide
Same-sex sexual activity was legalized in 1811
Netherlands became the first country in the world to legalize same-sex marriage in 2001
View homosexuality as moral
Ethnic Dutch people : 90%
Turks : 30%
Moroccans : 25%
Hindus : in line with Dutch people
Most opposition and violence against LGBT citizens stem from the Christian and Muslim communities
Amsterdam has frequently been named one of the most LGBT friendly cities in the world
Famous for its many accommodations specifically pertaining to the LGBT community
Venues like Pink Point
LGBT friendly information and souvenirs
First monument in the world to commemorate homosexuals who were persecuted and killed during World War II
Dutch gay and lesbian rights movement
a warning from the past
a confrontation with the present
an inspiration for the future
Theme : Pink Triangle Symbol
Past : worn by gay men imprisoned in the concentration camps of Nazi Germany
Now : Symbol
Public opinion (Poll)
Support for same-sex marriage: 51%
Oppose for same-sex marriage : 45%
New York Times/CBS News
Positive feedback for same-sex marriage : 53%
Negative feedback for same-sex marriage : 39%
News in 2014:
Support for same-sex marriage: 59%
Oppose for same-sex marriage: 34%
poll in 2015:
Agree for same-sex marriage: 63%
Disagree for same-sex marriage: 36%
After some time, there are more people accepting gay marriage
And so it begins..
Starting in 2003, various lower court decisions, state legislation, and popular referendums had already legalized same-sex marriage to some degree in
thirty-seven out of fifty
U.S. states, in the U.S. territory Guam, and in the District of Columbia.
It was subsequently legalized in different jurisdictions through
legislation, court rulings, tribal council rulings, and popular vote in referenda
mentions, and 60,727 unique tweets
mentions, and 20,375 unique tweets
mentions, 63,968 unique tweets
The speed of change
Not much record regarding to LGBT Malaysia due to the shaping of religion and less public awareness.
Government banned anyone who is LGBT from appearing in the state-controlled media.
Mahathir Mohamad, "Country will deport any visiting foreign cabinet ministers or diplomats who are gay and warned gay ministers in foreign countries not to bring along their partners while visiting the nation."
Film Censorship Board of Malaysia announced it would only allow depiction of homosexual characters as long as the characters "repent" or die.
Main Supporters : Political liberals and libertarians
Strongest : North and West coasts and other states with large urban populations
National Republican Party:
Official platform opposing most initiatives in the early 21st century for LGBT rights.
Log Cabin Republicans
Young Conservatives For The Freedom To Marry
College Republicans of the University of Pennsylvania and Columbia University
Main opponents : Political and religious conservatives
Conservatives cite various Bible passages from the Old and New Testaments as their justification for opposing gay rights.
Other states with a large rural and conservative population
Movement for same-sex marriage has developed, many national and/or international organizations have opposed that movement
American Family Association
Family Research Council
Focus on the Family
Save Our Children
National Republican Party
Roman Catholic Church
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church)
Southern Baptist Convention
Alliance for Marriage
Alliance Defense Fund
National Organization for Marriage
No Legal challenges and discrimination
Male and female same-sex sexual activity is legal, but legal protection special
Homosexuality in South Korea is not specifically mentioned in either the South Korean Constitution or in the Civil Penal Code
Article 92 of the Military Penal Code, which is currently under a legal challenge
The Military Penal Code does not make a distinction between consensual and non-consensual crimes and names consensual intercourse between homosexual adults as "reciprocal rape" (Hangul: hanja:).
Transgender people are allowed to have sex reassignment surgery in Korea after age 20
Can change their gender information on official documents
Harisu is South Korea's first transgender entertainer
General awareness of homosexuality remained low among the Korean public until recently
Gay-themed entertainment in mass media and recognizable figures and celebrities
Many prefer not to reveal their gay identity to their family, friends or co-workers
South Korea's first gay-themed magazine, Buddy, launched in 1998
Several popular gay-themed commercials have also aired
2005 South Korean film The King and the Clown, a gay-themed movie based on a court affair between a king and his male jester
The Korean title for The King and the Clown is
2010, the soap opera Life Is Beautiful (Korean:)
2013 movie director Kim Jho Kwang-soo and his partner Kim Seung-hwan became the first South Korean gay couple to publicly wed
The Korean word for "homosexual“ :
A less politically correct term :
South Korean homosexuals however, make frequent use of the term:
Homosexuality remains largely taboo in South Korean society
Same-sex couples are seldom if ever seen in public
Relatively low profile maintained by many gay clubs in South Korea
Seoul's historic Jongno
"College district" Sincheon-dong
Busan and the other large cities
South Koreans have become significantly more accepting of homosexuality and LGBT rights in the past decade, even if conservative attitudes remain dominant
2013 Gallup poll : 39% (should be accepted)
2007 Gallup poll : 18% (should be accepted)
South Korea recorded the most significant shift towards greater acceptance of homosexuality among the 39 countries surveyed worldwide
Significantly, there is a very large age gap on this issue: in 2013, 71% of South Koreans aged between 18-29 believed that homosexuality should be accepted, compared to only 16% of South Koreans aged 50 and over
In April 2013, a Gallup poll, which commissioned from a conservative Christian group, found that 25% of South Koreans supported same-sex marriage, while 67% opposed it and 8% did not know or answer.
Samsung & Google
July 10th 2015
Both Samsung and Google have banned popular gay social networking apps from their online stores
Samsung rejected the gay hookup app Hornet from its South Korean store in 2013, citing local values and laws that disallow LGBT content.
Hornet is available in the US and other countries, though it remains banned in Argentina, Iceland, Syria and South Korea, the report says.
Samsung confirmed to the site that it blocks LGBT apps on a country-by-country basis, though it's notable that Argentina and Iceland both legalized same-sex marriage in 2010.
One popular gay dating app, Jack'd
Chinese state media has estimated that there are currently between 10 million to 16 million such relationships in the country
Gay culture has always existed in China
Over the past decade it has become increasingly visible online
Chinese tech companies have also emulated their Silicon Valley counterparts in promoting themselves as friendly to gay rights
Taobao --co-sponsored “We Do,” an online contest where gay and lesbian couples competed to win an expense-paid wedding in West Hollywood
Li Jiajia, a popular television host, posted to her Sina Weibo microblogging account shortly after the decision was announced Friday night. “Wow, legalizing same-sex marriage nationwide is a big step forward. LGBT rights are the common interests of all human beings.”
Chinese government has had little to say on the matter
Justice Anthony Kennedy’s - “Confucius taught that marriage lies at the foundation of government,” citing China’s foundational philosopher and his Book of Rites.
Ruling in Obergefell v. Hodges
Zeng Yi, a prominent philosopher at Shanghai’s Tongji University, published a widely circulated op-ed arguing that Confucius was primarily interested in marriage as a means of procreation and continuing family lines
Media are exposed widely to promote LGBT equality
Zhi Cheng Zhang – Secret Love
Jolin Tsai - We're All Different, Yet The Same
Amei Zhang – Rainbow
Mayday – Hug
Brokeback mountain (directed by Ang Lee)
For Love We Can | Gay Themed Movies 2015 | Chinese Gay
Baby Steps (2015)
The issue of LGBT is suddenly a national topic of conversation
Homosexuality was only decriminalized in China in 1997 and removed from China’s official list of mental illnesses in 2001
Since then, homosexuality in China has been treated with an approach informally known as “the three nots”: not approved, not disapproved, not promoted
For gay Chinese, those expectations can be suffocating, leading to the widespread proliferation of “fake marriages”
Same sex married does not legalized by government in China
Bond to Islamic Law
Malaysia vs Netherland
Public View and Incident
The "People's Anti-Homosexual Voluntary Movement", was created in 1998 to lobby for stricter criminal laws against homosexuality, and is a member of the ruling United Malays National Organisation (UMNO)
The Democratic Action Party has publicly pledged to defend LGBT-rights issues, making it the first political party in Malaysia to do so
Prosecution of Anwar Ibrahim
In 1998, Anwar Ibrahim was charged with corruption and sodomy.
In 2000, he was sentenced to nine years for engaging in sodomy with his 19-year-old male chauffeur and his former male speech writer
he was not released until he had served out four years of his sentence, in 2004
After his release, Anwar stated that he was innocent and the allegations were part of a government conspiracy to end his political career.
He also felt that the national criminal laws against homosexuality ought to be reformed to protect consenting adult's right to have a private life
In 2007, former Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad responded to a civil lawsuit filed by Anwar by stating that a homosexual should not hold public office in Malaysia
In July 2008, Anwar was arrested again, accused of sodomy with a male former aide.
In the beginning of 2015, Anwar was arrested again and is currently serving a five-year prison sentence
LGBT-supporting organisations in Malaysia
Malaysia does not have a national organisation committed to LGBT rights.
Instead, a loose coalition of non-governmental organisations, artists, and individuals organise the annual sexuality rights festival Seksualiti Merdeka
Consisting of talks, performances, screenings, workshops, and forums to promote sexuality rights as a human right, to empower marginalised individuals and communities, and to create platforms for advocacy, letter-writing campaigns
Government has attempted to prevent these events from happening since 2011
The groups involved in Seksualiti Merdeka have also on their own advocated for the rights of LGBT within the framework of human rights advocacy
human rights organisations
Human Rights Committee of the Malaysian Bar, SUARAM, PT Foundation, KRYSS, Women's Candidacy Initiative, Persatuan Kesedaran Komuniti Selangor (Empower), Purple Lab, Matahari Books, and The Annexe Gallery.