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chaper 21

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Morgan Marks

on 6 February 2011

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Transcript of chaper 21

Chapter 21 Enlightenment; A philosophical movement in the 18th century Europe that fostered the belief that one could reform society by discovering rational laws that governed social behavior and were just scientific as the laws of physics. Benjamin Franklin; Writer and inventer, came to symbolize both the natural genius and the vast potential of America. George Washington; (1732-1799) a Virginia planter who had served in the French and Indian War. (Led the army) Joseph Brant; Organized Britain's most potent fighting force along the Canadian border. Raids earned him the nickname "monster." Constitutional Convention; Meeting in 1787 of the elected representatives of the 13 original states to write the constitution of the U.S. Estates General; Frances triditional assembly with representatives of the three estates, or classes in French society: the clergy, nobility, and commoners. The calling of the Estates General in 1789 led to French. National Assembly; French revolutionary assembly (1789-1791). Called first as the Estates General, the three estates came together and demanded radical change. It passed the Declaration of the rights of man in 1789. Declaration of the rights of man; statement of the fundamental political rights adopted by the the French National Assembly at the beginning of the French Revolution. Jacobins; Radical republicans during the French Revolution. They were led by Maximilien Robespierre from 1793 to 1794. Maximilien Robespierre; Young provincial lawyer who led the most radical phases of the French Revolution. His execution ended the Reign of Terror. Napoleon Bonaparte; Overthrew French Directory in 1799 and became emperor of the French in 1804. Failed to defeat Great Britian and abdicted in 1814. Returned to power briefly in 1815 but was defeated and died in exile. Gens de couleur; free men and women of color in Haiti. They sought greater political rights and later supported the Haitian Revolution. Francois Dominique Toussaint L'Ouverture; Leader of the Haitian Revolution. He freed the slaves and gained effective independence for Haiti despite military interventions by the British and French. Congress of Vienna; Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of NapoleanI Revolutions of 1848; Democratic and nationalist revolutions that swept across Europe. The monarchy in France was overthrown. In Germany, Austria, Italy, and Hungary the revolutions failed. QUESTION: how did imperial wars among European powers provoke revolution?

- The wars lead to unsettled grounds, meaning traditional taxes were changing because of the war expenses and the collection no longer covered the obligations of the government. Due to things changing there were more provoked debutes, confrontations with are more critical public.
- The wars affect the North American colonies after the British government defeat the French in 1763, by the Amerindian lands being pushed west the government knew there was military expenses, heavy debts from the French and Indian war. 1763 made the brithish request for more taxes in the 13 colonies.
- The Britian tried to pressure Amerindian lands and get colonists to shoulder the costs of imperial defensed colonial administration.
- The political turmoil in France weakened the ability of colonial administrators to maintain or des. ( French Revolution 1789-1815)
- The authority of officials was loseing power.
- Slavery was being challenged in France and Haiti. QUESTION: In what ways were the revolutions expanded literacy, and new political ideas linked?

- Enlightenment the methods and questions of scientific revolution during the 17th century which caused the study of human society.
- The movement of literacy and new political ideas help guide the revolutionary movements in the late 18th century.
- Science was a major movement that caused people to think more and question.
- John Luuke (1632-1704) English Political Philosopher that thought governments were created to protect life, liberty, and property and that the people had the right to rebel when a monarch violated these natual rights.
- Individual rights were foundation of civil gorverment.
- People of enlightenment (political leaders.) This communication led to contacts of intellectuals of different nations.
- Benjamin Franklin; important inventor during the revolution.
- These all link together with new ideas and science coming into the new world and more people question what was right from wrong led to people fighting and rebelling which caused the revolutions to start.
- Also universities and boooks were being Brought and published in the new world.
- Scientific method was being applied to economic and political questions, colonial writers, scholors, and artists on both sides of the Atlantic were drawn into a debate that eventually was to lead to the rejection of colonialism itself.
-European monarchs sponsor opening of schools to staff their bureaucracies with prople of meret. QUESTION: How did revolution in one country help incite revolution elsewhere?

- It depends on what is going on in one country and what they are about to do like a attact or bring more troops in could affects their country and start war.
- When Napoleon invade Europe it eliminated the ideas of the democratic legacy of the French Revolution, revolutionary ideology spread th Europe and the Americas.
- In Europe it promoted nationalism and republicanism.
- In the Americas the legacies of the American and French revolutions led to a struggles for independence.
- Napoleon's war led to the revolts in the colonial regime in saint and Domingue. (Haiti)
- In Europe the spread was checked by reaction as monarchs formed an alliance to tried to stop further revolution outbreaks.
- French officers that took place in the American Revolution helped ignite the French Revolution.
- Black freemen from Haiti traveled to France to get their rights and return to spread revolutionary passion. QUESTION: Why were the revolutions in France and Haiti more violent than the American revolution?

- It didn'tconfront directly the entrenched privileges because it changed the status of the church , monarchy , aristocracy, and no symbolic drama like comparable to the public beheading of the french king Louis XVI in 1793. Led to the French most radical period.
- Now the Haiti's come in 1802 with Napoleon sent a large military force to saint Dominque to reest. French colonial authority and slavery did not succeed.
- Political violence and economic stagnation were to trouble Haiti throughout the 29th century.
- The revolutions in France and Haiti Proved to be more violent and destructivethan the American Revolution
- In France and Haiti the revolutionaries faced a more strongly entrenched and more powerful opposition and greater social inequalities, responded with greater violence. Term and Concepts Questions Diversity & Dominance QUESTION: Why does Robespiere believe that revolution cannot tolerate diversity of opinion? Are his reasons convincing?

ANSWER: During revolution you can't have a republic. A republic is when you have people that have a say. But, during a revolution the people cant have a say. That is why a revolution cannot toterate diversity of opinio. Terror has to be forced into the people . Yes, because this is true. QUESTION: How does Robes pierre distinguish the terror of desposts from the terroe of liberty?

ANSWER: No he does not distinguish the difference between the two because each the liberty and the depot terror are each scared of each other. Liberty is the ruler feeling scared of his people over throwing himand despot is whem the citizens are scared of their ruler because he has his power and control over them. QUESTION: How does wollstoncraft explain the "ferocity" of the Parisians.

ANSWER: Because the hiver san punishment or anyone else but the poor. QUESTION: What does Wollstoncraft believe will Come from this period of violence.

ANSWER: So she believes that with the violencr going on will lead to peace for some time but then repeat history and violence will come again. 1. Benjamin Franklin was a __________.
a. A Virgina planter
b. a young provincial lawyer
c. writer and inventor
d. leader of the Haitian Revolution 2. In the Reading, Wollstonecraft talks about how poor people get put down and disrespected. What does Wollstonecraft think will be the outcome of all this violence?
a. It will only lead to more violence and the destruction
of the people and will bring down the empire
b. The people will stop being so violent and forgive each other. Then they will live happily ever after, like all fairy tales end
c. the lower class will die off and the empire will be made of upper classmen
d. The violence now will diminish, peace will be in the land, and history will repeat itself. 3. In 1763, what made the British request more
taxes from the 13 colonies?
a. they wanted to be a wealthy empire.
b. the British government was greedy and was pocketing some of the tax money for themselves.
c. there were heavy debts from the French and Indian War
d. If a war started between the British and one of their enemies, they wanted to be prepared 4. When Napolean invaded Europe, he eliminated the ideas of the democratic legacy of the French Revolution. What was promoted in Europe through this invasion?
a. nationalism and republicanism
b. Christianity and a new religion based government
c. a new marketing system
d. a new army and weapons 5. While reading pages 558-559 on Diversity and Dominance, Robespierre clearly states he believes that during a revolution diversity
of opinion should not be tolerated. Why?
a. because when he was a general he got annoyed with the complaints and thoughts of the people.
b. the people don't have a say during a revolution. Terror has to be forced into the people
c.The people didn't want to share their opinion, so the government
did what they thought was best
d. Robespierre never said any of this-none of the above QUIZ:
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