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The Appalachian Mountains
Transcript of The Appalachian Mountains
The Appalachians are known for being the oldest highland region of Canada. It runs through the State of Georgia (located in the South of the United States), the Maritime provinces of Canada to Newfoundland. (Clark, Wallace, Earle, 1948)This vast area of land stretches from 45N to 52N latitude. (Andrew, Griffin, Mader, 2004) It is 52W and 72W wide in longitude. It covers 350 000 square kilometers of Canada. (Andrew, Griffin, Mader, 2004)
300 million years ago, during the Paleozoic Era, North America, Europe, and North Africa collided to form Pangaea. The collision folded together layers of sedimentary rock to create (Clark, Wallace, Earle, 1948) ...
On this map, the Appalachian Highland Region is highlighted in red.
The Appalachian Highland has a very wide variety of landscapes. Sedimentary rock found in this location suggests that it was once under water. (Andrew, Griffin, Mader, 2004)Since this highland region is very old, the mountains are very rounded due to erosion. During the last ice age, glaciers deposited a lot of rich farming soil in the plains of the Appalachian Mountains. (Andrew, Griffin, Mader, 2004)The glaciers also carved many fjords which can be found in the coastlines of the Appalachians. (Andrew, Griffin, Mader, 2004)The islands of this region such as Prince Edward Island are large masses of land above the continental shelf surrounded by water that once composed glaciers in the form of ice during the last ice age. (Andrew, Griffin, Mader, 2004) Fjords are deep valleys that have been carved due to glaciation. (fjords)
Landscape of the Appalachian Highland.
Since the Appalachian Highland covers a wide area, it has many different climates. The coastal regions such as Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, and Newfoundland have moderate climates while inland regions such as central New Brunswick, and the northwest have cold winters and hot summers. (Andrew, Griffin, Mader, 2004)The Oceans bring a lot of precipitation to the Appalachians in the form of rain, snow, and fog. (Andrew, Griffin, Mader, 2004) They can also bring storms to the coastal areas when the Labrador current (cold waters) collide with the Gulf Stream. （warm waters) (Andrew, Griffin, Mader, 2004) The areas with higher altitudes have low temperatures.
Plants and Vegetation
There are many diverse species of plant life that can be found in the Appalachian region. The areas inland are covered by forests of coniferous and deciduous trees. (Andrew, Griffin, Mader, 2004)Examples of coniferous trees that exist in the Appalachian Highland are red spruce, black spruce, balsam fir, and eastern hemlock. Some of the deciduous trees that grow in the Appalachians are yellow birch, butternut, white elm, and red oak. (Parks Canada) (Andrew Griffin, Mader, 2004)Trees growing in the coastal areas are smaller because the soil there does not contain a lot of nutrients, salt water from the oceans damage the plants, and the winters are too cold and damp. (Andrew, Griffin, Mader, 2004)Mosses, lichen, and shrubs can be found in the coastal areas. (Andrew, Griffin, Mader, 2004)
The Appalachian Mountains contain plenty of food/vegetation to feed many different species of birds such as Atlantic puffins, ospreys, cormorants, and waterfowls. (Andrew, Griffin, Mader, 2004) Mammals that live in the Appalachian region include moose, caribou, lynx and black bears. (Andrew, Griffin, Mader, 2004) The Appalachian Mountains are also located near many water sources because the region is extended to the Maritime provinces. Fjords also contain water. (fjords)
The Appalachian Highland is very plentiful in natural resources. Approximately 20% of Canada's fossil fuels come from this region. (Andrew, Griffin, Mader, 2004) You can also find valuable minerals in the Appalachians such as copper, gold, lead, silver, gypsum, and salt. (Andrew, Griffin, Mader, 2004)The Appalachian Highland is located near many sources of water which are used to generate electricity, provide water for farming, recreational activities (such as kayaking) and more. (Andrew, Griffin, Mader, 2004) Off the coast of the Appalachians, the Continental Shelf provides a great habitat for fish and crustaceans such as salmon, halibut, lobster, and Malpeque oysters. (Andrew, Griffin, Mader, 2004) The Appalachian Highland also holds fertile soil in some areas for agriculture and trees that provide wood (Andrew, Griffin, Mader, 2004)
Located near the Appalachian region is the Hibernia oil field.
Many people who live in this region work in the fishing industry. There are also people who are employed to work on pipelines, oil tankers, and oil rigs. Areas with fertile soil also make the Appalachians a great place for agriculture. (Andrew, Griffin, Mader, 2004) Lumber and coal industries are also very prosperous here. The Appalachian region is also a great place for tourism. You can see many historic sites such as L' Anse aux Meadows, Gros Morne National Park, and Lunenburg. (Andrew, Griffin, Mader, 2004)
Coal mine in the Appalachians
Agriculture in the Appalachians.
The Appalachians are currently running out of resources such as coal, trees, and fish. This has caused many jobs to decrease. (Andrew, Griffin, Mader, 2004) Many people have been forced to migrate out of the region because of this reason. Some settlements located near the Appalachain region are Halifax, and St John's, and Saint John. (Andrew, Griffin, Mader, 2004) Europeans first came to settle in this region because fish were plentiful in coastal areas. (Andrew, Griffin, Mader, 2004) Port Royal was one of the first French settlements built by the Acadians. (Andrew, Griffin, Mader, 2004)
L' Anse aux Meadows
Gros Morne National Park
1. Bruce W. Clark, John K. Wallace, Kim M. Earle, "Making Connections", Pearson Canada, 2006, pages 130-143
2. Wayne Andrew, Andrew Griffin, Wendy Mader, "The Appalachian Highland", 1120 Birchmount Road, Toronto, Ontario, M1K 5G4, Nelson, 2004, pages 2,4,6,8,12,14,16,18,20,30,32,34, and 52
3. Appalachian, Parks Canada, 3rd Edition, 26/10/2013, http://www.pc.gc.ca/docs/v-g/nation/sec5.aspx
4. Atle Nesje, "What is a Fjord, and how is it formed...", Fjords, 03/11/13, http://www.fjords.com/sognefjord.shtml