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Mexico–USA migration presentation
Transcript of Mexico–USA migration presentation
Push factors - Mexico
Unemployment and poverty - 51% of population live below poverty line.
Lower paid jobs - GDP per capita = $15,400 (2012).
Poor education - only 93.5% of the population are literate & average age for leaving school is 14.
High crime rates - America is a more stable place to live.
Climatic and natural hazards - Water shortages including May 2011 drought.
Pull factors - USA
Better quality of life - better developed infrastructure and services like healthcare.
Existing migrant communities in Texas and California.
Better education - 94% of Mexico's population can read & write vs 99% of America's population.
Better paid jobs.
Problems for the USA (For argument)
As unemployment rises in the US, more Americans want Mexican jobs.
Mexican born population in the US accounted for 29% of the total US foreign born population in 2010.
50% of the Mexican born pop. falls within the 25-44 working age. 6% are older than 64 and 8% are younger than 18.
Mexicans are now spread throughout the 50 US states.
Since 2010, US legislation on illegal immigration has been reinforced - costs $3.5 billion a year for border patrol.
All of this puts a strain on American resources and services.
Overall, as with any form of migration, for every benefit there is a problem for each country, as less strain on one country's services/resources creates greater strain on another.
In the future, migration from Mexico to the USA may indeed decrease but this would then put greater strain on Mexico's resources and services as it progresses towards greater economic development.
Some background info...
Mexico-USA migration involves the movement of Mexicans to the Southern states of the USA which border Mexico.
The border spans four US states and six Mexican states over a distance of 2000km.
More than 12 million migrants have entered the USA since 1970, with more than half being illegal migrants.
The future? USA-Mexico migration
The foreign born population of Mexico has nearly doubled between 2000 and 2010.
Americans now make up more than 3/4 of Mexico's roughly 1 million documented foreigners.
Inequality still a major problem in Mexico.
As more migrants move in, more pressure is put on services and resources.
Without proper legislation, people could exploit the situation (unsustainable).
Central American immigrants see same advantages to that of Mexicans in the USA.
Benefits for the USA (Against argument)
The money Mexicans earn is spent on American goods as well as taxation.
In 2008, the Mexican Government reformed the General Population Act (GPA) to make unauthorized migrants to the US subject to fines and deportation.
Recent data shows a net rate of unauthorized migration fluctuating near zero - more Mexicans leaving the US than arriving.
1.4 million Mexicans returned to Mexico between 2005 and 2010.
Mexico's fertility rate has fallen from an average of 7.2 children per woman in 1960 to about 2.2 in 2011.
Benefits for Mexico (Against argument)
Mexicans earn greater wages in the US than they would in Mexico - more money can be sent back to families through Migradollars.
Inflow of Migradollars stimulates economic activity in Mexico both directly and indirectly - annual arrival of around $2 billion Migradollars into Mexico. (International Migration Review, 1996).
As people move out of Mexico, pressure on land, social services and jobs is relieved.
Distribution of Mexicans throughout the US
How has this changed?
Does this help to explain the occupational profile of Mexicans?
How does the Mexican born population differ?
Mexican migration to the USA
How has this changed over the period?
What is the trend for those who are Mexican born?
Problems for Mexico (For argument)
Increasingly dependent population left in Mexico - majority left are elderly who cannot work resulting in lower fertility rates.
Shortage of workers to fill newly freed jobs - creates 'ghost towns'
Recent trend reversal is creating an economic crisis in small communities, particularly in the villages the migrants came from .
Lack of work opportunities in small villages drives people to migrate to larger cities within Mexico - 78% of Mexicans live in urban zones.