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HACS Year 1: APA Referencing

Introduction to APA Referencing
by

Katharine Stapleford

on 14 October 2013

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Transcript of HACS Year 1: APA Referencing

APA6th Referencing
Katharine Stapleford
Outcomes:
1. recognise the purpose and value of referencing
2. identify features of in-text citations and a reference list
3. differentiate between direct quotations and paraphrasing
4. gain confidence using the APA 6th referencing system
Why reference?
as a courtesy to the originator
to show the research and reading you have done
to show you can support your points
to enable readers to follow up and read the original text
to enable yourself to check something later
to get a good mark!
to avoid plagiarism
"plagiarise: take and use (the thoughts, writings, inventions, etc. of another person) as one's own" (The Oxford English Reference Dictionary, 1996, p. 1107).
When?
In-text citations
Why?
you will read a variety of books, journals and other sources while preparing for assignments
your tutor must be able to see which information and ideas are from which source
to enable tutors to see which parts of your assignment are from your reading and research and which parts are your own ideas
"quoting"
directly repeating someone else's 'published' exact words / image

"paraphrasing/summarising"
explaining someone else's 'published':
idea / theory / concept / statistics / data in your own words
How?

"TV reflects the dumbing down of modern society" (Brown, 2001, p. 26).


Brown (2001) complains of a trend he calls, "the dumbing down of modern society" (p. 26).
Direct quotations:
Paraphrasing (include page or paragraph)
Some critics believe modern society suffers from a tendency to oversimplify issues (Brown, 2001, p. 26).
According to Brown (2001) there is a tendency in modern TV society to oversimplify issues (p. 26).
In 2001, Brown pointed out that there is a tendency in modern TV society to oversimplify issues (p. 26).
How?
Reference lists
What?
Only those sources you've cited or paraphrased within the main body of your assignment.
Surname, initial. (year). Title. place: publisher
Greetham, B. (2001). How to Write Better Essays. Basingstoke: Palgrave.
surname, initial. (year). article title. Journal, vol. issue. pages
Twigg, J. (2010). How does Vogue Negotiate Age?: Fashion, the Body, and the Older Woman. Fashion Theory: the Journal of Dress, Body and Culture, 14 (4), 471-490.
surname, initial(s). (year). Title. Retrieved from URL
Atherton, J.S. (2005). Learning and Teaching: cognitive theories of learning. Retrieved from http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/cognitive.htm
Now you try!
In pairs, look at the sources and complete the table showing how you would write in-text citations and reference lists.
Try the 'referencing ferret'
http://learnhigher.ac.uk/Students/Academic-Writing.html
Two teams:
Short quotes (fewer than 40 words):
Longer quotes (40 or more words):

As X points out, ....
According to X, ...
To quote from X, '...'
X states/suggests that ...
X tells/shows us that ...
In his/her article, 'name of article', X makes the point that ...
Referring to ..., X says that ...
As X stated/wrote/said, ...
In 'name of text', X wrote that ...
Writing in 'name of text', X explained that ..,
Writing in 1996, X argued/claimed that ...
Useful phrases to introduce references:
... or bibliography?
Atherton, J.S. (2005). Learning and Teaching: cognitive theories of learning. Retrieved from http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/cognitive.htm

Cottrell, S. (2003). The Study Skills Handbook (2nd ed.). Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan.

Greetham, B. (2001). How to Write Better Essays. Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan

innovativeteach. (2011, April 21). Easy Referencing Using Word 2010 [video file]. Retrieved from

Learn Higher. (2012). The referencing Ferret, Academic Writing: Resources for Students. Retrieved from http://learnhigher.ac.uk/Students/Academic-Writing.html

The Oxford English Reference Dictionary. (1996). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Twigg, J. (2010). How does Vogue Negotiate Age?: Fashion, the Body, and the Older Woman. Fashion Theory: the Journal of Dress, Body and Culture. 14 (4), 471-490.
References:
(Cottrell, 2003, p. 136)
We don't reference:

common knowledge
historical overviews
unpublished thoughts, ideas
Let's practise paraphrasing:
http://www.elanguages.ac.uk/los/sst/using_paraphrase_in_writing_access.html
http://www.equalityhumanrights.com/
http://www.fcdl.org.uk/home
http://www.innovationunit.org/
http://www.nya.org.uk/
double quotation marks
author's surname
year of publication
page or paragraph number
Spot 5 differences...
1. no quotation marks
2. freestanding block of text
3. indented
4. double line spacing
5. citation after final punctuation mark
Summarising (no page/paragraph number)
Give an overview of a whole article/paper or theory:

Research conducted by Pinder, Kessel, Green, and Grundy (2009) investigated environmental influences on health.
Pinder, R., Kessel, A., Green, J., & Grundy, C. (2009) Exploring perceptions of health and the environment. Health & Place 15 349-356. doi: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2008.06.006
For further information: http://www.apastyle.org/
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